Malignant gliomas are typically characterized by rapid cell proliferation and a marked propensity to invade and damage surrounding tissues. They are the main brain tumors notoriously resistant to currently available therapies, since they fail to undergo apoptosis upon anticancer treatments. With recent advances in neuroscience and improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of invasive migration, gene therapy provides a new strategy for treating glioma cancer. Brain tumor gene therapy using viral vectors and stem cells has shown promise in animal model and human patient studies. Here, we review recent studies on engineering adenoviral vectors that can be used as therapy for brain tumors. The new findings presented in this study are essential for the further exploration of this cancer and they represent an approach for developing a newer and more effective therapeutic approach in the clinical treatment of human glioma cancer.
Several scorpion insect toxins are selectively active on the lepidopterous and dipterous insects. The gene encoding insect excitatory neurotoxin (BmK IT) from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) at a high level of 3 mg/0.5 L using the prokaryotic expression system pTWIN1. Colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), whole-cell patch-clamp technique and immunofluorescence assays were used to evaluate the toxicity of rBmK IT to insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells and to analyze the potential mechanism of this toxicity. rBmK IT accelerated the growth of Sf9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Voltage-gating sodium channel activity could not be detected in Sf9 cells using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. However, immunofluorescence analysis clearly showed co-localization of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and rBmK IT on the Sf9 cell membrane, which demonstrated that rBmK IT could bind to and act on the voltage-gated sodium channels on the Sf9 cells by the high affinity action power. The findings presented in this study are essential for further study of this peptide.
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