Prompt RV remodelling, with reduction of RV volume and mass, is observed after performing PVR if the RV end-diastolic volume exceeds 150 mL/m(2). Early PVR may prevent the detrimental complications of severe pulmonary regurgitation.
OBJECTIVES: Thirty-two consecutive isolated modified Blalock Taussig (BT) shunts performed in infancy since 2004 were reviewed and analysed to identify the risk factors for shunt intervention and mortality.
METHODS:Sternotomy was the only approach used. Median age and weight were 10.5 (range 1-74) days and 2.9 (1.9-4.4) kg, respectively. Shunt palliation was performed for biventricular hearts (Tetralogy of Fallot/double outlet right ventricle/transposition of great arteries_ventricular septal defect_pulmonary stenosis/pulmonary atresia_ventricular septal defect/others) in 21, and univentricular hearts in 11, patients. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients were excluded. Two procedures required cardiopulmonary bypass. Median shunt size was 3.5 (3-4) mm and median shunt size/kg body weight was 1.2 (0.9-1.7) mm/kg. Reduction in shunt size was necessary in 5 of 32 (16%) patients.
RESULTS:Three of 32 (9%) patients died after 3 (1-15) days due to cardiorespiratory decompensation. Lower body weight (P = 0.04) and bigger shunt size/kg of body weight (P = 0.004) were significant risk factors for mortality. Acute shunt thrombosis was observed in 3 of 32 (9%), none leading to death. Need for cardiac decongestive therapy was associated with univentricular hearts (P < 0.001), bigger shunt size (P = 0.054) and longer hospital stay (P = 0.005). Twenty-eight patients have undergone a successful shunt takedown at a median age of 5.5 (0.5-11.9) months, without late mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Palliation with a modified BT shunt continues to be indicated despite increased thrust on primary corrective surgery. Though seemingly simple, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective over-shunting and acute shunt thrombosis are the lingering problems of shunt therapy.
Background-Heart valve tissue engineering is a promising strategy to overcome the lack of autologous growing replacements, particularly for the repair of congenital malformations. Here, we present a novel concept using human prenatal progenitor cells as new and exclusive cell source to generate autologous implants ready for use at birth. Methods and Results-Human fetal mesenchymal progenitors were isolated from routinely sampled prenatal chorionic villus specimens and expanded in vitro. A portion was cryopreserved. After phenotyping and genotyping, cells were seeded onto synthetic biodegradable leaflet scaffolds (nϭ12) and conditioned in a bioreactor. After 21 days, leaflets were endothelialized with umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells and conditioned for additional 7 days. Resulting tissues were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry (amounts of extracellular matrix, DNA), mechanical testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were compared with native neonatal heart valve leaflets. Fresh and cryopreserved cells showed comparable myofibroblast-like phenotypes. Genotyping confirmed their fetal origin. Neo-tissues exhibited organization, cell phenotypes, extracellular matrix production, and DNA content comparable to their native counterparts. Leaflet surfaces were covered with functional endothelia. SEM showed cellular distribution throughout the polymer and smooth surfaces. Mechanical profiles approximated those of native heart valves.
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