Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37%) from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%), followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%), C. kefir (6%) and C. albicans (4.8%). We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.
RESUMO Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus e A. niger são os mais importantes agentes etiológicos da aspergilose, relevante micose aviária, com tratamento ineficaz e altas taxas de mortalidade. Em vista da importância da aspergilose, da necessidade de prospectar novos fármacos e do potencial terapêutico do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (OEO), o orégano, objetivou-se avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de isolados clínicos de Aspergillus spp. em relação ao OEO. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação em Clevenger, e a análise química realizada por cromatografia de massa (GC/MS). Observaram-se 15 diferentes compostos ativos, sendo 4-terpineol, hidrato de sabinene e timol os majoritários. Nos testes de microdiluição em caldo (Reference..., 2008), todos os isolados (n= 23) foram sensíveis ao OEO: A. fumigatus teve CIM entre 28,125mg/mL (0,1875%) e 450mg/mL (3,0%), A. flavus entre 112,5mg/mL (0,75%) e 450mg/mL, e A. niger 112,5mg/mL. CFM variou de 112,5mg/mL a 450mg/mL nos isolados de A. fumigatus, de 225mg/mL (1,5%) a 450mg/mL em A. flavus, e foi de 450mg/mL em A. niger. CIM e CFM foram idênticos em 6/14 isolados, o que demonstra que o óleo com a mesma concentração pode ter capacidade fungistática e fungicida. CIM 90 correspondeu à CIM máxima. Os resultados demonstram a atividade anti-Aspergillus do OEO, com CIM 90 de 450mg/mL (3%).
The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute – CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 μg/mL and >16 μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 μg/mL and MFC of 8 μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25–9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25–18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70–80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.
Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. This work aimed to evaluate the virulence of two different isolates of S. schenckii from cutaneous (CUT) and systemic (SYS) forms of feline sporotrichosis. A standard inoculum with 2 x 10(3) yeast cells/ml was prepared from each of the isolates. The experimental infection was carried out with 0.1 ml of the inoculum from both isolates and then injected in the paw pads of Swiss albino mice of groups CUT and SYS. The clinical evolution of the disease and the diameter of the lesion at the inoculated sites were evaluated during nine weeks. Four necropsies were done to collect material from the lesions (p < 0.01). Group CUT demonstrated a more evident clinical evolution of the disease from week two to week five; large lesions in the paw pad on week four (p < 0.01); and a higher incidence of lesions in other parts of the body (p < 0.01) than group SYS (p < 0.01). S. schenckii was isolated from the inoculated site in groups SYS and CUT until days 30 and 45, respectively. Granulomas with yeast cells usually localized in the central area were observed in histopathology sections on days 15 and 30 post-inoculations. Those yeast cells decreased on day 45 being absent on day 62 when tissue repair initiated. The results showed that distinct clinical isolates of S. schenckii cause significant differences in the clinical evolution of sporotrichosis.
Faculdade de Veterinária, UFPel. Campus Universitário; 96010-900 Pelotas, RS -Brasil.
RESUMODermatofitose é uma micose cutânea determinada por um grupo de fungos chamados dermatófitos que infectam estruturas queratinizadas do homem e animais, causada por espécies do gênero Trichophyton, Microsporum e Epidermophyton. O Trichophyton verrucosum, dermatófito de origem zoofílica, é importante na dermatofitose bovina. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a presença de T. verrucosum na pele hígida de bovinos e estudar casos clínicos de dermatofitose relacionando-os com a sazonalidade, idade e sexo. Foram estudados 313 bovinos, sendo 171 com pele hígida e 142 com lesões compatíveis com dermatofitose. As amostras foram colhidas pela técnica do tapete e por raspado de pele e pêlos, cultivadas em ágar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol e cicloheximida, enriquecido com tiamina e inositol e incubados à 37ºC por um período de até 30 dias. O isolamento do T. verrucosum ocorreu em somente duas (1,2%) amostras de pele hígida e em 136 (95,8%) amostras de bovinos com lesões, principalmente naquelas procedentes de animais com menos de um ano de idade (92,8%), machos (58,7%), e no período de outono e inverno (97,9%). Os resultados demonstram que o T. verrucosum em pele hígida de bovinos é um fungo de transição, ocasional e não-residente, e o desenvolvimento de dermatofitose ocorre preferencialmente durante o outono e inverno, sendo os jovens e machos os mais afetados.
ABSTRACTDermatophytosis is a cutaneous mycosis caused by a group of fungus called dermatophytes that infect the keratin structures of the man and animals. This mycosis is caused by species of the gender Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Trichophyton verrucosum, dermatophyte of zoophilic origin, is important in the bovine dermatophytosis. This study aimed to investigate the presence of T. verrucosum in healthy skin of bovines and to study clinical cases of dermatophytosis, as well as to relate their association with season of the year, age and sex. A total of 313 bovine, of which 171 showing healthy skin and remaining 142 with skin lesions similar to dermatophytosis, was studied. The samples were collected using the carpet technique and scraped of skin and hair cultivated in agar Sabouraud with cloramphenicol and cicloheximide, enriched with thiamin and inositol and incubated at 37ºC for up to 30 days. T. verrucosum was isolated in only two (1.2%) samples of bovine with healthy skin and in 136 (95.8%) samples of animals with lesions. Animals with less than one year of age (92.8%), males (58.7%), and in the autumn and winter period (97.8%) showed higher frequency of T. verrucosum. The results indicate that T. verrucosum in healthy skin of bovine is a transition fungus, occasional and no resident. In addition, dermatophytosis occurs mainly during the autumn and winter, being young and males the most affected.
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