Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low hemolytic activity, especially at MIC levels. This study describes for the first time the synergistic and additive interaction between OEO and bio-AgNP produced by F. oxysporum against multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA, and β-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. These results indicated that this combination can be an alternative in the control of infections with few or no treatment options.
BackgroundThe emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a world health problem. Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, is one of the most important human pathogens associated with hospital and community-acquired infections. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived compound against MRSA strains.MethodsThirty clinical MRSA strains were isolated, and three standard MRSA strains were evaluated. The extracellular compounds were purified by vacuum liquid chromatography. Evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by agar diffusion technique, determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration, curve of growth and viability and scanning electron microscopy. Interaction of an extracellular compound with silver nanoparticle was studied to evaluate antibacterial effect.ResultsThe F3 (ethyl acetate) and F3d (dichloromethane- ethyl acetate) fractions demonstrated antibacterial activity against the MRSA strains. Phenazine-1-carboxamide was identified and purified from the F3d fraction and demonstrated slight antibacterial activity against MRSA, and synergic effect when combined with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum. Organohalogen compound was purified from this fraction showing high antibacterial effect. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that the F3d fraction caused morphological changes to the cell wall of the MRSA strains.ConclusionsThese results suggest that P. aeruginosa-produced compounds such as phenazines have inhibitory effects against MRSA and may be a good alternative treatment to control infections caused by MRSA.
Several studies have tested antimicrobial activity of combinations of honey and various substances. In this study, we tested a combination of two stingless bee honeys against various bacterial strains. In particular: the antibacterial activity of honeys produced by Scaptotrigona bipunctata (SB) and Scaptotrigona postica (SP) was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by agar well diffusion assays, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment, construction of growth and viability curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interaction of the two honeys was also evaluated by the checkerboard assay. Inhibition zones ranged from 8 to 22 mm. The MIC values of the individual honeys ranged from 0.62 to 10% (v v−1) and decreased to 1/4 to 1/32 when the honeys were combined. SEM images showed division inhibition and cell wall disruption for the SB and SP honeys, respectively, and these alterations were observed in same field when the SB and SP honeys were combined. This study demonstrated that the natural honeys possess in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. Combination of the SB and SP honeys could lead to the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobials that have the potential to prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates are responsible for many bloodstream infections. The aim of this study was to characterize E. coli isolated from the bloodstreams of patients ( n = 48) at the University Hospital in Brazil. Epidemiological data were obtained through the analysis of medical records and laboratory tests. By PCR analysis, we investigated the presence of virulence factors (VFs), pathogenicity islands (PAIs), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), phylogenetic classifications (A, B1, B2, C, D, E, and F) and molecular genotype by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The mortality analysis showed that 33.3% of the deaths were associated with bacteraemia due to E. coli infections; in addition, an age between 60 and 75 years ( p < 0.001; OR = 6.3[2.1–18.9]) and bacteraemia with an abdominal origin ( p = 0.02; OR = 5[1.2–20.5]) were risk factors for the severity of the infection. Additionally, the presence of the afa gene was associated with mortality due to E. coli bacteraemia ( p = 0.027; OR = 11.4[1.5–85.7]). Immunosuppression (27.1%), intestinal diseases (25.0%) and diabetes (18.8%), were prevalent among patients, and most of the bacteraemia cases were secondary to urinary tract infections (50.0%). The serum resistance gene tra T was present in 77.1% of isolates, group capsular 2 ( kpsMT II) was present in 45.8% and the K5 capsule was present in 20.8% of isolates. The isolates also showed a high prevalence for the siderophore yersiniabactina ( fyu A) (70.8%) and PAI IV 536 (77.1%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that group B2 (45.8%) was the most prevalent, and was the phylogroup that had a higher prevalence of VFs and PAIs. However, in this study, a considerable number of isolated bacteria were classified as group B1 (18.8%) and as group E (14.6%). Eight (16.7%) isolates were resistant to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and group CTX-M-1 (CTX-M-15) was the most prevalent ESBL type. The molecular genotyping showed two clonal lineages and several isolates that were not related to each other. This study provides additional information on the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of E. coli bloodstream infections in Brazil.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is one of the main etiological agents of bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. In the present study, 20 E. coli isolates from human hemocultures were characterized to identify genetic features associated with virulence (pathogenicity islands markers, phylogenetic group, virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and conjugative plasmids) and these results were compared with commensal isolates. The most prevalent pathogenicity island, in strains from hemoculture, were PAI IV536, described by many researchers as a stable island in enterobacteria. Among virulence genes, iutA gene was found more frequently and this gene enconding the aerobactin siderophore receptor. According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found. Additionally, through plasmid analysis, 14 isolates showed plasmids and 3 of these were shown to be conjugative. Although in stool samples of healthy people the presence of commensal strains is common, human intestinal tract may serve as a reservoir for ExPEC.
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