A chemical core-shell strategy is developed here for the synthesis of ferrofluids based on nanoparticles of different ferrites with different mean sizes. A heterogeneity of chemical composition, associated with a superficial enrichment of iron, allows to obtain chemically stable ionic colloids. We propose here a coreshell model to describe the synthesized nanoparticles, which is tested by chemical and magnetic measurements performed at the various steps of the synthesis. The thickness of the superficial layer, rich in iron, is ranging between 0.4 and 1.3 nm, depending on the nanoparticle size and on the underlying ferrite. Its density is found close to that of maghemite, and its magnetization depends on the core ferrite. It is low with a cobalt ferrite core and larger for the three other ferrites investigated here (NiFe 2 O 4 , CuFe 2 O 4 , and ZnFe 2 O 4 ). Magnetic measurements prove that there is a strong redistribution of Zn 2+ ions inside the core of the synthesized nanoparticles based on ZnFe 2 O 4 .
We report on the suitability of core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic fluid hyperthermia in a selfregulated and theranostic approach. Aqueous magnetic colloids based on core/shell ZnxMnyFezO4@γ-Fe2O3 and ZnxCoyFe-zO4@γ-Fe2O3 NPs were produced by a three-step chemical synthesis. Systematic deviations from stoichiometry was observed with increasing Zn substitution for both series of samples. We investigated how the chemical composition affects saturation magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and thermomagnetic properties of these core/shell NPs. The heating efficiency through specific power absorption (SPA) was analyzed in the framework of the linear response theory. SPA values obtained for NPs presenting different contrast of anisotropy between the core and shell materials indicate no evidence of enhanced exchange coupling contribution to the heating efficiency.
Uma escala diagramática, abrangendo os dois tipos prevalentes de sintomas de mancha preta em frutos cítricos (Citrus spp.), os de mancha dura e de falsa melanose, foi desenvolvida para padronizar a avaliação da severidade da doença. A escala foi elaborada considerando os limites máximos e mínimos de severidade da doença observados no campo. Os valores intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos para os sintomas do tipo mancha dura (0,5; 1,7; 5,0; 11,5; 22,5 e 49,0%) e do tipo falsa melanose (1,1; 4,5; 15,0; 31,0; 53,0 e 68,0%). Para a validação da escala, seis avaliadores quantificaram a severidade da doença a partir das imagens digitalizadas de 50 frutos com diferentes níveis de doença. Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala. Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores, utilizando a escala diagramática proposta, estimaram a severidade nos mesmos frutos avaliados anteriormente. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores e proporcionaram maior reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da mancha preta nos frutos e será usada em estudos epidemiológicos e de avaliação de estratégias de controle desta doença.
This work describes the use of mesoporous SBA-15 silicas as hard templates for the size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles, with the pores acting as nanoscale reactors. This fundamental work is mainly aimed at understanding unresolved issues concerning the occurrence and size dependence of phase transitions in oxide nanocrystals. Aqueous solutions of Fe(NO3)3*9H2O are deposited inside the pores of SBA-15 silicas with mesopore diameters of 4.3, 6.6, and 9.5 nm. By calcination, the nitrate salt transforms into FeOx oxides. The XRD peaks of nanocrystals are broad and overlapping, resulting in ambiguities attributed to a given allotropic variety of Fe2O3 (alpha, epsilon, or gamma) or Fe3O4. The association of XRD, SAED, and Raman information is necessary to solve these ambiguities. The metastable gamma-Fe2O3 variety is selectively formed at low Fe/Si atomic ratio (ca. 0.20) and when a low calcination temperature is used (773 or 873 K followed by quenching to room temperature once the targeted temperature is reached). The small size dispersion of the patterned nanoparticles, suggested on a local scale by TEM, is confirmed statistically by magnetic measurements. The nanoparticles have a superparamagnetic behavior around room temperature. Their magnetic moments (from 220 to 370 mB), their sizes (from 4.0 to 4.8 nm), and their blocking temperatures (from 36 to 58 K) increase with the silica template mesopore diameter. Their magnetic properties are compared to those of standard gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles of similar size, obtained by coprecipitation in water and stabilized by a citrate coating.
Thermodiffusion of different ferrite nanoparticles (NPs), ∼10 nm in diameter, is explored in tailor-made aqueous dispersions stabilized by electrostatic interparticle interactions. In the dispersions, electrosteric repulsion is the dominant force, which is tuned by an osmotic-stress technique, i.e. controlling of osmotic pressure Π, pH and ionic strength. It is then possible to map Π and the NPs' osmotic compressibility χ in the dispersion with a Carnahan-Starling formalism of effective hard spheres (larger than the NPs' core). The NPs are here dispersed with two different surface ionic species, either at pH ∼ 2 or 7, leading to a surface charge, either positive or negative. Their Ludwig-Soret ST coefficient together with their mass diffusion Dm coefficient are determined experimentally by forced Rayleigh scattering. All probed NPs display a thermophilic behavior (ST < 0) regardless of the ionic species used to cover the surface. We determine the NPs' Eastman entropy of transfer and the Seebeck (thermoelectric) contribution to the measured Ludwig-Soret coefficient in these ionic dispersions. The NPs' Eastman entropy of transfer ŝNP is interpreted through the electrostatic and hydration contributions of the ionic shell surrounding the NPs.
We investigate the local structure of nanoparticles based on a manganese ferrite core surrounded or not by a maghemite layer obtained after hydrothermal surface treatment. Results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements are crossed with those of infield Mossbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES/EXAFS) to study the valence state of Mn ions and the cation distribution at interstitial sites of the core−shell nanoparticle structure. Linear combination fitting of XANES data clearly indicates the existence of mixed valence states of Mn cations in the Mn ferrite phase. As a direct consequence, it induces nonequilibrium cation distributions in the nanoparticle core with the presence of a large amount of Mn cations at octahedral sites. The quantitative results of the inversion degree given by NPD, Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements, and EXAFS are in good accordance. It is also shown that both the proportions of each oxidation degree of Mn ions and their location at tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the spinel nanocrystal core can be modified by increasing the duration of the surface treatment. a χ M is the molar fraction of manganese ions obtained by ICP and AAS techniques, ⟨a⟩ is the average lattice parameter deduced from Bragg's law, ϕ c / ϕ is the volume fraction of the core, and t sh is the thickness of the surface layer. The particle sizes (D XR ) were obtained by Scherrer's equation.
The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient S(T)(T) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence.
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