Abstract:Wastewater treatment is a process of intensive use of resources, mainly energy, which accounts for 15 to 40% of the operating costs in conventional wastewater treatment systems. With the expected demographic increase and the restrictive trend in quality standards for effluent discharge, the energy consumption tends to increase further if there are no changes in the processes. The literature gathers the energy consumption of different wastewater treatment systems, in an attempt to map the processes and to help the decision making in the search for better alternatives. One of these alternatives is the recovery of energy from the sewer. The conventional treatment system requires between 0.3 and 0.6 kWh/m 3 , while the energy contained in the wastewater may be up to 10 times of the one required for the treatment. The simultaneous wastewater treatment and power generation, called the hybrid treatment system, is a worldwide trend. In Brazil, recent studies have shown, through energy balances, the energy viability of anaerobic-aerobic systems, with the production of algae. This work presents a comparative review of the energy consumption of different wastewater treatment plants, aiming at a better understanding and management of the processes. The results showed that there are few Brazilian data published, indicating that the country still demands more studies on the subject to improve its processes. In the treatment of wastewater, most studies point to the aerobic process as the largest consumer of energy, and efforts are focused on the optimization of the conventional system, but still without great achievements. Environmental goals and water supply strategies are poorly integrated with the energy handling, leading to an inefficient use, and with economic and environmental consequences.
Levantamento bibliométrico e mapeamento da análise de ciclo de vida para microalgas: uma revisão da literatura Bibliometric listing and mapping of life cycle analysis for microalgas: a literature review
Occupational dermatoses account for a large fraction of work-related illnesses, and have significant economic and social repercussions. Though these conditions are subject to mandatory reporting, they are often underdiagnosed, and have only been scarcely studied in Brazil.
To describe the profile of workers affected by occupational dermatosis based on reports sent to the Information System on Notifiable Diseases [Sistema de Informação de Agravos e de Notificação (SINAN)], and provide evidence to support disease prevention initiatives.
The following data were collected from incident reports sent in the state of Espírito Santo, from 2007 to 2016: city, year, age of worker, education level, gender, causal agent, race, occupation, lesion site, and need for medical leave. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel, using frequency and percentage statistics.
A total of 340 incidents were reported in the state of Espírito Santo, which most cases (79%) occurring in the city of Atílio Vivácqua. The highest number of cases involved female workers aged 20 to 29 years, with complete primary and incomplete secondary education, in unskilled occupations such as domestic work, and were associated with exposure to chemical agents such as chlorine, detergents, and latex. The lesion site was reported in fewer than 2% of cases. At least 25% of affected workers required medical leave.
The individuals most frequently affected by occupational dermatosis were women, aged 20 to 29 years, with complete primary education, in unskilled occupations. There is a need for greater investment in the education of unskilled workers, especially those who perform cleaning services.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.