Silk sericin is a natural polymer produced by silkworm, Bombyx mori, which surrounds and keeps together two fibroin filaments in silk thread used in the cocoon. The recovery and reuse of sericin usually discarded by the textile industry not only minimizes environmental issues but also has a high scientific and commercial value. The physicochemical properties of the molecule are responsible for numerous applications in biomedicine and are influenced by the extraction method and silkworm lineage, which can lead to variations in molecular weight and amino acid concentration of sericin. The presence of highly hydrophobic amino acids and its antioxidant potential make it possible for sericin to be applied in the food and cosmetic industry. The moisturizing power allows indications as a therapeutic agent for wound healing, stimulating cell proliferation, protection against ultraviolet radiation, and formulating creams and shampoos. The antioxidant activity associated with low digestibility of sericin that expands the application in the medical field, such as antitumour, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent, anticoagulant, acts in colon health, improving constipation and protects the body from obesity through improved plasma lipid profile. In addition, the properties of sericin allow its application as a culture medium and cryopreservation, in tissue engineering and for drug delivery, demonstrating its effective use, as an important biomaterial.
A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint.
The carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral neuropathy in the upper limb, but its treatment with conservative therapies such as neural mobilization (NM) is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the NM as treatment in a model of median nerve compression. 18 Wistar rats were subjected to compression of the median nerve in the right elbow proximal region. Were randomly divided into G1 (untreated), G2 (NM for 1 minute), and G3 (NM for 3 minutes). For treatment, the animals were anesthetized and the right forelimb received mobilization adapted to humans, on alternated days, from the 3rd to the 13th day postoperatively (PO), totaling six days of therapy. Nociception was assessed by withdrawal threshold, and after euthanasia histomorphometric analysis of the median nerve was performed. The nociceptive evaluation showed in G2 and G3 delay in return to baseline. Histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in the variables analyzed. It is concluded that the NM was not effective in reducing nociceptive sensation and did not alter the course of nerve regeneration.
Objective To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization.Methods We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, their tibias bilaterally removed and submitted to histological routine.Results There was significant increase in thickness of the articular cartilage (F(5;29)=13.88; p<0.0001) and epiphyseal plate (F(5;29)=14.72; p<0.0001) as the number of chondrocytes (F(5;29)=5.11; p=0.0021) in ovariectomized rats, immobilized and submitted to exercise. In the morphological analysis, degeneration of articular cartilage with subchondral bone exposure, loss of cellular organization, discontinuity of tidemark, presence of cracks and flocculation in ovariectomized, immobilized and free remobilization rats were found. In ovariectomized and immobilized remobilization ladder rats, signs of repair of the cartilaginous structures in the presence of clones, pannus, subcortical blood vessel invasion in the calcified zone, increasing the amount of isogenous groups and thickness of the calcified zone were observed.Conclusion Exercise climb ladder was effective in cartilaginous tissue recovery process damaged by immobilization, in model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy in rats.
Introdução: O músculo esquelético se adapta continuamente a estímulos. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da imobilização e remobilização sobre parâmetros morfológicos dos músculos sóleo e tibial anterior de ratos Wistar. Métodos: Dezoito animais foram imobilizados por 15 dias, divididos em três grupos de seis componentes cada: G1 – somente imobilizados; G2 – remobilizados livremente; G3 – remobilizados em meio aquático. Foram coletados os músculos sóleo e tibial anterior, direitos (imobilizados ou tratados) e esquerdos (controle). Resultados: A imobilização reduziu massa, diâmetro da fibra e comprimento do músculo sóleo, e massa muscular do tibial anterior. Em G2 e G3, houve aumento da massa e comprimento muscular do tibial anterior; e aumento do menor diâmetro da fibra do sóleo em G3. Conclusão: A imobilização afeta a morfologia dos músculos estudados, a remobilização livre e em meio aquático foram eficientes na recuperação do tibial anterior, enquanto para o sóleo apenas os exercícios aquáticos foram eficazes.
Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet.Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination.Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed.Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.
It was our objective to analyse the effects of resistance exercise (climbing steps), which was started in the acute phase, on the histomorphometry and the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in the soleus muscle after sciatic nerve injury in Wistar rats. Twenty-four adult rats were randomly divided into the following four groups, containing six animals each: control (G1); exercise (G2); injury (G3); and exercise with injury (G4). Three days after the compression of the sciatic nerve, the animals in G2 and G4 were submitted to resistance exercise for 21 non-consecutives days. The exercise was conducted in two series of 10 consecutive ascents of the ladder, with an additional weight of 100g and with an interval of 60 seconds between sets for rest. After this period, the animals were sacrificed, and the soleus muscle was processed. The number of blood capillaries in G3 was 65.7% and 76.86% higher when compared with the G2 and G4, respectively. The morphological analysis revealed muscle damage in G3, hypertrophy in G2 and significant improvement in the muscle in G4. The AQP1 was immunolocalized in the endothelium of blood capillaries present in the muscle fibres, with different expressions in the groups. Resistance exercise initiated in the acute phase was an effective therapeutic modality in the recovery of morphological aspects in the soleus muscle after denervation.
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