The interleukin (IL)‐3 family of cytokines mediates its numerous effects on myeloid growth and maturation by binding a family of related receptors. It has been shown recently that IL‐3 induces the activation of two distinct cytoplasmic signal transducing factors (STFs) that are likely to mediate the induction of immediate early genes. In immature myeloid cells, IL‐3 activates STF‐IL‐3a, which comprises two tyrosine‐phosphorylated DNA binding proteins of 77 and 80 kDa. In mature myeloid cells, IL‐3 and granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor activate STF‐IL‐3b, which consists of a 94 and 96 kDa tyrosine‐phosphorylated DNA binding protein. Peptide sequence data obtained from the purified 77 and 80 kDa proteins (p77 and p80) indicate that they are closely related but are encoded by distinct genes. Both peptide and nucleotide sequence data demonstrate that these two proteins are the murine homologs of ovine mammary gland factor (MGF)/Stat5. The peptide data also indicate that p77 and p80 are phosphorylated on tyrosine 699, a position analogous to the tyrosine that is phosphorylated in Stat1 and Stat2 in response to interferon. Additionally, antiserum raised against bacterially expressed p77/p80 recognizes the 94 and 96 kDa protein components of STF‐IL‐3b, suggesting that these may be additional isoforms of Stat5. These studies indicate that the IL‐3 family of ligands is able to activate multiple isoforms of the signal transducing protein Stat5.
Recent reports have confirmed highest levels of growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) transcripts in melanoma, one of the most aggressive forms of human cancer. Yet the mechanism of GH action in melanoma remains mostly unknown. Here, using human malignant melanoma cells, we examined the effects of GH excess or siRNA mediated GHR knock-down (GHRKD) on tumor proliferation, migration and invasion. GH promoted melanoma progression while GHRKD attenuated the same. Western blot analysis revealed drastic modulation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways (JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, mTOR, SRC and ERK1/2) following addition of GH or GHRKD. Further, we show that GH excess upregulates expression of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition in human melanoma, while the effects were reversed by GHRKD. Interestingly, we observed consistent expression of GH transcript in the melanoma cells as well as marked modulation of the IGF receptors and binding proteins (IGF1R, IGF2R, IR, IGFBP2, IGFBP3) and the oncogenic HGF-MET mRNA, in response to excess GH or GHRKD. Our study thus identifies the mechanistic model of GH-GHR action in human melanoma and validates it as an important pharmacological target of intervention.
Growth hormone (GH) is produced primarily by anterior pituitary somatotroph cells. Numerous acute human (h) GH treatment and long-term follow-up studies and extensive use of animal models of GH action have shaped the body of GH research over the past 40-50 years. Work on the GH receptor (R) knock-out (GHRKO) mice and results of studies on GH resistant Laron Syndrome (LS) patients have helped define many physiological actions of GH including those dealing with metabolism, obesity, cancer, diabetes, cognition, and aging/longevity. In this review, we have discussed several issues dealing with these biological effects of GH and attempt to answer the question of whether decreased GH action may be beneficial.
Melanoma remains one of the most therapy-resistant forms of human cancer despite recent introductions of highly efficacious targeted therapies. The intrinsic therapy resistance of human melanoma is largely due to abundant expression of a repertoire of xenobiotic efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Here, we report that GH action is a key mediator of chemotherapeutic resistance in human melanoma cells. We investigated multiple ABC efflux pumps (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1, and ABCG2) reportedly associated with melanoma drug resistance in different human melanoma cells and tested the efficacy of five different anti-cancer compounds (cisplatin, doxorubicin, oridonin, paclitaxel, vemurafenib) with decreased GH action. We found that GH treatment of human melanoma cells upregulates expression of multiple ABC transporters and increases the EC50 of melanoma drug vemurafenib. Also, vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells had upregulated levels of GH receptor (GHR) expression as well as ABC efflux pumps. GHR knockdown (KD) using siRNA in human melanoma cells treated with sub-EC50 doses of anti-tumor compounds resulted in significantly increased drug retention, decreased cell proliferation and increased drug efficacy, compared to mock-transfected controls. Our set of findings identify an unknown mechanism of GH regulation in mediating melanoma drug resistance and validates GHR as a unique therapeutic target for sensitizing highly therapy-resistant human melanoma cells to lower doses of anti-cancer drugs.
Our findings suggest that a myriad of molecular mechanisms are induced by GH that cause EMT and may point to potential therapeutic use of GH antagonists or any downregulator of GH action in EMT-related disease.
Moxifloxacin has shown excellent activity against drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), thus confirming DNA gyrase as a clinically validated target for discovering novel anti-TB agents. We have identified novel inhibitors in the pyrrolamide class which kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis through inhibition of ATPase activity catalyzed by the GyrB domain of DNA gyrase. A homology model of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv GyrB domain was used for deciphering the structure-activity relationship and binding interactions of inhibitors with mycobacterial GyrB enzyme. Proposed binding interactions were later confirmed through cocrystal structure studies with the Mycobacterium smegmatis GyrB ATPase domain. The most potent compound in this series inhibited supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of <5 nM, an MIC of 0.03 g/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and an MIC 90 of <0.25 g/ml against 99 drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The frequency of isolating spontaneous resistant mutants was ϳ10 ؊6 to 10 ؊8 , and the point mutation mapped to the M. tuberculosis GyrB domain (Ser208 Ala), thus confirming its mode of action. The best compound tested for in vivo efficacy in the mouse model showed a 1.1-log reduction in lung CFU in the acute model and a 0.7-log reduction in the chronic model. This class of GyrB inhibitors could be developed as novel anti-TB agents. In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that ϳ11.1 million people across the globe were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with an associated mortality rate of 1.3 million (1). Patients with drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) are treated with an intensive regimen consisting of a 2-month, once-daily combination therapy of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. This is followed by a 4-month continuation regimen with isoniazid and rifampin (2).These anti-TB drugs were discovered in the period spanning 1945 to 1965. The reemergence of TB due to HIV and multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of TB has created a global epidemic. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover new drugs with a novel mode of action (3-6).The clinical efficacy of fluoroquinolone drugs demonstrated over the past 20 to 30 years has validated DNA gyrase as a target in the area of broad-spectrum antibacterials (7). DNA gyrase is essential for growth in all bacteria, including mycobacteria. Due to the absence of topoisomerase IV, DNA gyrase is essential for DNA supercoiling as well as decatenation activities in M. tuberculosis (8). In addition, this enzyme is essential for DNA replication and repair as well as transcription. Therefore, we believed that a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors would be effective anti-TB agents.DNA gyrase is a heterotetramer comprising of GyrA and GyrB subunits (A 2 B 2 ). GyrA contains the DNA breakage-reunion site, while GyrB hydrolyzes ATP (9). This enzyme introduces negative supercoils into circular DNA following ATP hydrolysis. DNA gyrase also catalyzes the interconversion...
Pituitary derived and peripherally produced growth hormone (GH) is a crucial mediator of longitudinal growth, organ development, metabolic regulation with tissue specific, sex specific, and age-dependent effects. GH and its cognate receptor (GHR) are expressed in several forms of cancer and have been validated as an anti-cancer target through a large body of in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological analyses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of GH action in cancer prognosis and therapeutic response had been sparse until recently. This review assimilates the critical details of GH-GHR mediated therapy resistance across different cancer types, distilling the therapeutic implications based on our current understanding of these effects.
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