SUMMARYBisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-a). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a nonsignificant increase in ER-a expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.
Background: Triclosan (TCS) is a bactericide used in many daily products. TCS potential for endocrine disruption is suspected to impact male reproductive system. Aim of the study: Is to evaluate the effect of TCS and its withdrawal on the cauda epididymis of adult albino rat using different histological and biochemical techniques. Materials & Methods: Twenty-one adult male albino rats were equally divided into 3 groups; control, TCS-treated (administered 200mg/kg/day for 8weeks) and TCS-withdrawal group (administered 200mg/kg/day for 8weeks then left without treatment for 8weeks). Serum testosterone was quantified and epididymal specimens were processed for light and electron microscopic examination. Immunohistochemical staining against androgen receptor was performed. Results: TCS-treated group revealed a significant decrease in serum testosterone. Principal cells showed vacuoles compressing their nuclei, some pyknotic nuclei and sparse stereocilia. Many adluminal halo cells were observed. The epithelial lining depicted focal areas of stratification and areas of discontinuity. Widened interstitium inbetween the ducts with cellular infiltrations and some congested blood vessels were observed. Mallory-trichrome staining revealed prominent collagen fibers surrounding the epididymal ducts and blood vessels and an enhanced Periodic-Acid-Schiff reaction in the thickened basal lamina coupled to a diminished Periodic-Acid-Schiff reaction in the apical parts of the epididymal epithelial cells. A weak nuclear androgen receptor immunoreaction in the epididymal epithelial lining of the ducts was detected. Ultrastructural examination depicted principal cells with irregular nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm with many lysosomes, dilated Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Irregular apical cytoplasmic projections and sparse stereocilia were observed. Clear cells showed some cytoplasmic projections, large apical vacuoles and few lipid droplets. Migrating halo cells with vacuolated cytoplasm were observed. Withdrawal group showed a near normal histology. Conclusion: TCS has extremely affected the epididymal lining through acting as an endocrine disruptor. Withdrawal of TCS exerted a satisfactory outcome.
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