Disorder of sex development is an inclusive term that refers to any problem where the genital organ is atypical in relation to chromosomes or gonads. Ovotesticular disorder of sex development, which is formerly known as “true hermaphroditism,” is the most rare form among all disorders of sex development in humans. It is characterized by the simultaneous presence of both ovarian and testicular tissues in the same individual and characteristically presents with ambiguous genitalia in neonates or infants. Herein, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old individual with phenotypically nearly normal male genitalia who presented with the complaint of bilateral breast enlargement.
This study evaluated the prevalence of different types of meniscal lesions
among elderly patients with knee pain. Moreover, this study assessed the relationship between meniscal
lesions and the presence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the elderly population.
The radiographs and magnetic resonance images of one knee out of 306 patients with
knee pain aged 65-89 years were reviewed for knee OA and meniscal lesions. The prevalence of
different types of meniscal lesions was calculated, and the relationship between the prevalence of
meniscal lesion types and the presence of radiographic knee OA was analyzed.
Among 306 participants, 274 (89.5%) showed radiographic knee OA. We found one or
more meniscal lesion(s) in 93% of the total subjects, in 94% of all patients with knee OA, and in
84% of all patients without knee OA. The prevalence of surgically target, possible-target, and nontarget
lesions were 24%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. The prevalence of surgically target lesions
was significantly higher in patients with knee OA than in those without it. The most common lesion
observed was meniscal extrusion, followed by the horizontal and complex meniscal tears.
Our results demonstrated that meniscal damage is considerably prevalent among elderly
individuals with knee pain, especially in those with knee OA. The fact that surgically target
and possible-target lesions constitute a substantial proportion of these lesions should be considered
in the clinical approach to these patients.
Introduction Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are rare expansive lesions that account for~1% of all spinal tumors. They develop as the result of arachnoid membrane herniation through a small dural defect and are mostly reported to be located at lower thoracic region and thoracolumbar junction. Case presentation We report a rare case of SEAC located in the cervicothoracic junction causing neurologic compression. Discussion Only 3% of all SEACs are observed in the cervical spine. They are the most common in young men and present with compressive symptoms. SEACs have potential to enlarge. As they are surgically removable lesions, early and definite diagnosis is important in preventing clinical deterioration. MRI is recommended for the diagnosis and preoperative planning.
Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chondromalacia patella (CMP) and to evaluate its relation with trochlear morphometric and patellofemoral alignment measurements as well as with edema in superolateral region of Hoffa's fat pad (SHFP) in military recruits with anterior knee pain (AKP).Materials and Methods:Knee magnetic resonance imaging examinations of 288 military recruits with AKP were retrospectively evaluated. Patellar cartilage lesions were graded using modified Noyes system. Quantitative measurements of trochlear morphology (sulcus angle, trochlear sulcus depth, and lateral trochlear inclination [LTI]) and patellofemoral alignment (patellar translation [PT], lateral patellofemoral angle (LPA), Insall-Salvati index, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance) were made. The SHFP region was assessed for the presence of edema. Mean values of measurements in knees with and without CMP and in knees with early and advanced stage CMP were compared.Results:We found CMP in 169 (58.7%) patients. Patients with CMP demonstrated a significantly greater sulcus angle (P = 0.012), smaller LTI (P = 0.004), greater PT (P = 0.01), smaller LPA (P = 0.036), greater Insall-Salvati ratio (P = 0.034), and higher incidence of SHFP edema (P = 0.001) compared to those without CMP. While none of the measurements were associated with the severity of cartilage damage, the incidence of SHFP edema was significantly correlated with the severity of CMP (P = 0.001).Conclusion:CMP is a common disorder among military recruits with AKP. Patellofemoral malalignment is an important contributory factor in the development of CMP, and the presence of edema in SHFP may be a strong indicator of underlying severe CMP in this population.
Ulnar hemimelia, also referred to as post-axial longitudinal deficiency of the upper limb, is a very rare skeletal anomaly characterized by the partial or complete absence of the ulna. The majority of the reported cases are sporadic and more common in males. The disorder is mostly unilateral, right-sided and incomplete. A slight shortening of the forearm, radial bowing and ulnar-sided hand drift are the anomalies which often accompany ulnar hemimelia. Ulnar hemimelia may also be seen in association with complex wrist and hand anomalies. The absence of post-axial metacarpal and digital bones are frequent findings in patients with this rare disorder. Cases with additional digital abnormalities such as post-axial syndactyly and camptodactyly are also present in the literature. However, a case of ulnar hemimelia in association with mesoaxial synostotic syndactyly has never been reported to date.
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