Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity is a potential therapeutic target to treat cancer and obesity. Here, we have identified a molecular link between FAS and HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene, a marker for poor prognosis that is overexpressed in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. Pharmacological FAS inhibitors cerulenin and C75 were found to suppress p185 HER2 oncoprotein expression and tyrosinekinase activity in breast and ovarian HER2 overexpressors. Similarly, p185 HER2 expression was dramatically down-regulated when FAS gene expression was silenced by using the highly sequencespecific mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi). Pharmacological and RNAi-mediated silencing of FAS specifically down-regulated HER2 mRNA and, concomitantly, caused a prominent up-regulation of PEA3, a transcriptional repressor of HER2. A cytoplasmic redistribution of p185 HER2 was associated with marked morphological changes of FAS RNAi-transfected cells, whereas chemical inhibitors of FAS promoted a striking nuclear accumulation of p185 HER2 . The simultaneous targeting of FAS and HER2 by chemical FAS inhibitors and the humanized antibody directed against p185 HER2 trastuzumab, respectively, was synergistically cytotoxic toward HER2 overexpressors. Similarly, concurrent RNAi-mediated silencing of FAS and HER2 genes synergistically stimulated apoptotic cell death in HER2 overexpressors. p185 HER2 was synergistically down-regulated after simultaneous inhibition of FAS and HER2 by either pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNA. These findings provide evidence of an active role of FAS in cancer evolution by specifically regulating oncogenic proteins closely related to malignant transformation, strongly suggesting that HER2 oncogene may act as the key molecular sensor of energy imbalance after the perturbation of tumor-associated FAS hyperactivity in cancer cells.trastuzumab ͉ small interfereing RNA ͉ chemotherapy ͉ lipogenesis ͉ Herceptin T he biosynthetic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the major enzyme required for the anabolic conversion of dietary carbohydrates to fatty acids, and it functions normally in cells with high lipid metabolism. Under normal physiological conditions, any FAS increase is tightly regulated by a number of environmental, hormonal, and nutritional signals (1, 2). However, human tissue studies have demonstrated that infiltrating carcinomas of the breast constitutively express high levels of FAS compared to nontransformed human epithelial tissue (3-8). Furthermore, increased levels of FAS accompany the development of in situ carcinoma of the breast, suggesting a potential link between increased expression and increased risk of breast cancer development (9). Remarkably, overexpression and hyperactivity of FAS is associated with more aggressive breast and ovarian cancers (3-8, 10). The early and nearly universal up-regulation of FAS in many human cancers and its association with poor clinical outcome both strengthen the hypothesis that FAS is involved in the development, maintenance, and enhancement of the malignant...
Bisphosphonates (BP) prevent, reduce, and delay cancer-related skeletal complications in patients, and have substantially decreased the prevalence of such events since their introduction. Today, a broad range of BP with differences in potency, efficacy, dosing, and administration as well as approved indications is available. In addition, results of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of BP in cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) have been recently published. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence on the use of BP in solid tumours and provide clinical recommendations. An interdisciplinary expert panel of clinical oncologists and of specialists in metabolic bone diseases assessed the widespread evidence and information on the efficacy of BP in the metastatic and nonmetastatic setting, as well as ongoing research on the adjuvant use of BP. Based on available evidence, the panel recommends amino-bisphosphonates for patients with metastatic bone disease from breast cancer and zoledronic acid for patients with other solid tumours as primary disease. Dosing of BP should follow approved indications with adjustments if necessary. While i.v. administration is most often preferable, oral administration (clodronate, IBA) may be considered for breast cancer patients who cannot or do not need to attend regular hospital care. Early-stage cancer patients at risk of developing CTIBL should be considered for preventative BP treatment. The strongest evidence in this setting is now available for ZOL. Overall, BP are well-tolerated, and most common adverse events are influenza-like syndrome, arthralgia, and when used orally, gastrointestinal symptoms. The dose of BP may need to be adapted to renal function and initial creatinine clearance calculation is mandatory according to the panel for use of any BP. Subsequent monitoring is recommended for ZOL and PAM, as described by the regulatory authority guidelines. Patients scheduled to receive BP (mainly every 3-4 weeks i.v.) should have a dental examination and be advised on appropriate measures for reducing the risk of jaw osteonecrosis. BP are well established as supportive therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastases from different cancers.
Median survival of patients with brain metastases from nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is poor and more effective treatments are urgently needed. We have evaluated the efficacy of erlotinib in this setting and its association with activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.We retrospectively identified patients with NSCLC and brain metastases treated with erlotinib. EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 were analysed by direct sequencing. Efficacy and tolerability were compared according to EGFR mutational status.69 NSCLC patients with brain metastases were identified, 17 of whom harboured EGFR mutations. Objective response rate in patients with EGFR mutations was 82.4%; no responses were observed in unselected patients (p,0.001). Median (95% CI) time to progression within the brain for patients harbouring EGFR mutations was 11.7 (7.9-15.5) months, compared to 5.8 (5.2-6.4) months for control patients whose EGFR mutational status had not been assessed (p,0.05). Overall survival was 12.9 (6.2-19.7) months and 3.1 (2.5-3.9) months (p,0.001), respectively. The toxicity of erlotinib was as expected and no differences between cohorts were observed.Erlotinib is active in brain metastases from NSCLC; this clinical benefit is related to the presence of activating mutations in exons 19 or 21 of the EGFR gene.
Background: A low incidence of breast cancer in the Mediterranean basin suggests that a high consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) might confer this benefit. While the anti-HER2 oncogene effects of the main ω-9 fatty acid present in EVOO triacylglycerols (i.e., oleic acid) have been recently described, the anti-breast cancer activities of EVOO non-glyceridic constituentswhich consist of at least 30 phenolic compounds-, remained to be evaluated.
BackgroundAnti-HER2 therapies are associated with a risk of increased cardiac toxicity, particularly when part of anthracycline-containing regimens. We report cardiac safety of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer.Patients and methodsBERENICE (NCT02132949) is a nonrandomized, phase II, open-label, multicenter, multinational study in patients with normal cardiac function. In the neoadjuvant period, cohort A patients received four cycles of dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, then 12 doses of standard paclitaxel plus four standard trastuzumab and pertuzumab cycles. Cohort B patients received four standard fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide cycles, then four docetaxel cycles with four standard trastuzumab and pertuzumab cycles. The primary end point was cardiac safety during neoadjuvant treatment, assessed by the incidence of New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure and of left ventricular ejection fraction declines (≥10 percentage-points from baseline and to a value of <50%). The main efficacy end point was pathologic complete response (pCR, ypT0/is ypN0). Results are descriptive.ResultsSafety populations were 199 and 198 patients in cohorts A and B, respectively. Three patients [1.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31% to 4.34%] in cohort A experienced four New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure events. Thirteen patients (6.5%; 95% CI 3.5% to 10.9%) in cohort A and four (2.0%; 95% CI 0.6% to 5.1%) in cohort B experienced at least one left ventricular ejection fraction decline. No new safety signals were identified. pCR rates were 61.8% and 60.7% in cohorts A and B, respectively. The highest pCR rates were in the HER2-enriched PAM50 subtype (75.0% and 73.7%, respectively).ConclusionTreatment with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and common anthracycline-containing regimens for the neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer resulted in cardiac and general safety profiles, and pCR rates, consistent with prior studies with pertuzumab.Clinical Trial InformationNCT02132949
These findings demonstrate that OA, the main monounsaturated fatty acid of olive oil, suppresses Her-2/neu overexpression, which, in turn, interacts synergistically with anti-Her-2/neu immunotherapy by promoting apoptotic cell death of breast cancer cells with Her-2/neu oncogene amplification. This previously unrecognized property of OA offers a novel molecular mechanism by which individual fatty acids may regulate the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells and therefore be helpful in the design of future epidemiological studies and, eventually, dietary counseling.
Although we cannot definitely establish FASN as a novel oncogene in breast cancer, this study reveals for the first time that exacerbated endogenous FA biosynthesis in non-cancerous epithelial cells is sufficient to induce a cancer-like phenotype functionally dependent on the HER1/HER2 duo. These findings may perhaps radically amend our current perspective of endogenously synthesized fat, as on its own, it appears to actively increase signal-to-noise ratio in the HER1/HER2-driven progression of human breast epithelial cells towards malignancy.
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