Use of high-resolution micro-computed tomography (mCT) imaging to assess trabecular and cortical bone morphology has grown immensely. There are several commercially available mCT systems, each with different approaches to image acquisition, evaluation, and reporting of outcomes. This lack of consistency makes it difficult to interpret reported results and to compare findings across different studies. This article addresses this critical need for standardized terminology and consistent reporting of parameters related to image acquisition and analysis, and key outcome assessments, particularly with respect to ex vivo analysis of rodent specimens. Thus the guidelines herein provide recommendations regarding (1) standardized terminology and units, (2) information to be included in describing the methods for a given experiment, and (3) a minimal set of outcome variables that should be reported. Whereas the specific research objective will determine the experimental design, these guidelines are intended to ensure accurate and consistent reporting of mCT-derived bone morphometry and density measurements. In particular, the methods section for papers that present mCT-based outcomes must include details of the following scan aspects: (1) image acquisition, including the scanning medium, X-ray tube potential, and voxel size, as well as clear descriptions of the size and location of the volume of interest and the method used to delineate trabecular and cortical bone regions, and (2) image processing, including the algorithms used for image filtration and the approach used for image segmentation. Morphometric analyses should be based on 3D algorithms that do not rely on assumptions about the underlying structure whenever possible. When reporting mCT results, the minimal set of variables that should be used to describe trabecular bone morphometry includes bone volume fraction and trabecular number, thickness, and separation. The minimal set of variables that should be used to describe cortical bone morphometry includes total cross-sectional area, cortical bone area, cortical bone area fraction, and cortical thickness. Other variables also may be appropriate depending on the research question and technical quality of the scan. Standard nomenclature, outlined in this article, should be followed for reporting of results. ß
The role of rifting in the formation of the recent structure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogen is extremely high, but it is still underestimated with regard to flanks of the Dzhagda segment of this orogen. Current researches refer to a combination of physical and chemical processes in the depth of the lithosphere, as well as interactions between the Izanagi, Eurasian and Pacific plates as explanations of repeated rifting events in East Asia. Upwelling of the asthenosphere due to significant differences in the lithosphere thickness (150-200 km under cratons, and only 100 km under orogenic belts) was viewed as a cause of rifting. It was assumed that rifting was controlled by mantle plumes, volcanism and heat regime. Structures bordering the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogen from north and south were considered as superimposed or marginal troughs. Recent studies have revealed numerous riftogenic Late Mesozoic structures in the Central Asian orogenic belt, which resulted from the collision of the Siberian and North Chinese cratons. New geological survey and geochemical data on volcanites confirmed the riftogenic origin of the Zeya-Uda (or Uda) and Nora-Selemdzha troughs bordering the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogen from north and south, respectively ( Fig. 1, and 2). Geology and geophysics of those troughs has been described. It is noted that riftogenic volcanites formed later in the east than those in the west. The Late Mesozoic rifting is widely manifested in North Eastern Asia across the area exceeding two million square kilometers, from Lake Baikal to the Sikhote-Alin region (west to east) and from the Southern Yakutia basins to North China (north to south). It is evidenced by intra-continental rifts of various trends, volcanic provinces and extension structures along large strike-slip faults [Ren et al., 2002]. The Uda and Nora-Selemdzha marginal troughs located along the Dzhagda segment of the Mongolia-Okhotsk orogen give evidence that compression was replaced by extension in the study area. Rifting structures may be due to physical and chemical processes, the development of plumes [Yarmolyuk et al., 2000], as well as the interaction between the Pacific and Eurasian lithospheric plates. Volcanic activity took place earlier in the west and then propagated to the east due to the shifting of the subduction zone in this direction. This paper analyzes regional and global geological events on the basis of new drilling data and the geochronological dating of volcanites. It describes the Late Mesozoic stage of rifting at the flanks of the Dzhagda segment of the Mongolia-Okhotsk collisional orogen. P a l e o g e o d y n a m i c s RESEARCH ARTICLEДля цитирования: Кириллова Г.Л. Позднемезозойский рифтогенез на флангах Джагдинского звена Монголо-Охотского коллизионного орогена: глобальные и региональные аспекты // Геодинамика и тектонофизика.
We present four companion digital models of the age, age uncertainty, spreading rates, and spreading asymmetries of the world's ocean basins as geographic and Mercator grids with 2 arc min resolution. The grids include data from all the major ocean basins as well as detailed reconstructions of back‐arc basins. The age, spreading rate, and asymmetry at each grid node are determined by linear interpolation between adjacent seafloor isochrons in the direction of spreading. Ages for ocean floor between the oldest identified magnetic anomalies and continental crust are interpolated by geological estimates of the ages of passive continental margin segments. The age uncertainties for grid cells coinciding with marine magnetic anomaly identifications, observed or rotated to their conjugate ridge flanks, are based on the difference between gridded age and observed age. The uncertainties are also a function of the distance of a given grid cell to the nearest age observation and the proximity to fracture zones or other age discontinuities. Asymmetries in crustal accretion appear to be frequently related to asthenospheric flow from mantle plumes to spreading ridges, resulting in ridge jumps toward hot spots. We also use the new age grid to compute global residual basement depth grids from the difference between observed oceanic basement depth and predicted depth using three alternative age‐depth relationships. The new set of grids helps to investigate prominent negative depth anomalies, which may be alternatively related to subducted slab material descending in the mantle or to asthenospheric flow. A combination of our digital grids and the associated relative and absolute plate motion model with seismic tomography and mantle convection model outputs represents a valuable set of tools to investigate geodynamic problems.
The appearance of cancellous bone architecture is different for various skeletal sites and various disease states. During aging and disease, plates are perforated and connecting rods are dissolved. There is a continuous shift from one structural type to the other. So traditional histomorphometric procedures, which are based on a fixed model type, will lead to questionable results. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) measuring techniques in bone research makes it possible to capture the actual architecture of cancellous bone without assumptions of the structure type. This requires, however, new methods that make direct use of the 3D information. Within the framework of a BIOMED I project of the European Union, we analyzed a total of 260 human bone biopsies taken from five different skeletal sites (femoral head, vertebral bodies L2 and L4, iliac crest, and calcaneus) from 52 donors. The samples were measured three-dimensionally with a microcomputed tomography scanner and subsequently evaluated with both traditional indirect histomorphometric methods and newly developed direct ones. The results show significant differences between the methods and in their relation to the bone volume fraction. Based on the direct 3D analysis of human bone biopsies, it appears that samples with a lower bone mass are primarily characterized by a smaller plate-to-rod ratio, and to a lesser extent by thinner trabecular elements. (J Bone Miner
We present a revised global plate motion model with continuously closing plate boundaries ranging from the Triassic at 230 Ma to the present day, assess differences among alternative absolute plate motion models, and review global tectonic events. Relatively high mean absolute plate motion rates of approximately 9–10 cm yr−1 between 140 and 120 Ma may be related to transient plate motion accelerations driven by the successive emplacement of a sequence of large igneous provinces during that time. An event at ∼100 Ma is most clearly expressed in the Indian Ocean and may reflect the initiation of Andean-style subduction along southern continental Eurasia, whereas an acceleration at ∼80 Ma of mean rates from 6 to 8 cm yr−1 reflects the initial northward acceleration of India and simultaneous speedups of plates in the Pacific. An event at ∼50 Ma expressed in relative, and some absolute, plate motion changes around the globe and in a reduction of global mean plate speeds from about 6 to 4–5 cm yr−1 indicates that an increase in collisional forces (such as the India–Eurasia collision) and ridge subduction events in the Pacific (such as the Izanagi–Pacific Ridge) play a significant role in modulating plate velocities.
Gravity models are powerful tools for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. We combined new radar altimeter measurements from satellites CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 with existing data to construct a global marine gravity model that is two times more accurate than previous models. We found an extinct spreading ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, a major propagating rift in the South Atlantic Ocean, abyssal hill fabric on slow-spreading ridges, and thousands of previously uncharted seamounts. These discoveries allow us to understand regional tectonic processes and highlight the importance of satellite-derived gravity models as one of the primary tools for the investigation of remote ocean basins.
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