Carbon nanotubes constitute a novel class of nanomaterials with potential applications in many areas. The attachment of metal nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes is new way to obtain novel hybrid materials with interesting properties for various applications such as catalysts and gas sensors as well as electronic and magnetic devices. Their unique properties such as excellent electronic properties, a good chemical stability, and a large surface area make carbon nanotubes very useful as a support for gold nanoparticles in many potential applications, ranging from advanced catalytic systems through very sensitive electrochemical sensors and biosensors to highly efficient fuel cells. Here we give an overview on the recent progress in this area by exploring the various synthesis approaches and types of assemblies, in which nanotubes can be decorated with gold nanoparticles and explore the diverse applications of the resulting composites.
A high-throughput screening assay on a microfluidic chip was developed for the determination of charge variants of monocolonal antibodies (mAbs) in pI range of 7-10. This method utilizes microchip zone electrophoresis for rapid separation (<90 s) of mAb charge variants that are labeled fluorescently without altering the overall charge. The microfluidic assay achieves between 8- and 90-fold times faster separation time over conventional methods while maintaining comparable resolution and profiles of charge variant distributions. We further characterized the assay with respect to (i) the effect of pH on resolution, (ii) the effect of excipients and buffering agents, (iii) the performance of the assay compared to conventional methods, and (vi) the reproducibility of charge variant profiles. Finally, we explored the utility of the assay with four case studies: (i) monitoring C-terminal lysine modification of a mAb, (ii) quantifying the extent of deamidation of a mAb, (iii) providing charge variant information on which to base clone selection, and (iv) making process parameter-related decisions from a "design of experiment" (DoE) study. The results of these case studies demonstrate the applicability of the microfluidic assay for high-throughput monitoring of mAb quality in process development of biopharmaceuticals.
Drug-loaded nanohybrid films and porous scaffolds were prepared using chitosan, Ag nanoparticles and gelatin using a solution casting and freeze-drying method, respectively. Gelatin was used to incorporate the cell onto the surface of the scaffolds and the nanohybrid films. 1-[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole) (Metronidazole (MTZ) was used as a model drug. The small percentage of Ag nanoparticles in the nanohybrid films and scaffolds produced significantly higher cell proliferation and levels of drug release. The tensile properties showed improvement in strength by Ag nanoparticles reinforcement at the expense of elongation.
NF-κB activation is a critical signaling event in the inflammatory response and has been implicated in a number of pathological lung diseases. To enable the assessment of NF-κB activity in the lungs, we transfected a luciferase based NF-κB reporter into the lungs of mice or into Raw264.7 cells in culture. The transfected mice showed specific luciferase expression in the pulmonary tissues. Using these mouse models, we studied the kinetics of NF-κB activation following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Raw264.7 cells expressed a dose-dependent increase in luciferase following exposure to LPS and the NF-κB reporter mice expressed luciferase in the lungs following LPS challenge, establishing that bioluminescence imaging provides adequate sensitivity for tracking the NF-κB activation pathway. Interventions affecting the NF-κB pathway are promising clinical therapeutics, thus we further examined the effect of IKK-2 inhibition by MLN120B and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibition by TDZD-8 on NF-κB activation. Pre-treatment with either MLN120B or TDZD-8 attenuated NF-κB activation in the pulmonary tissues, which was accompanied with suppression of pro-inflammatory chemokine MIP-1ß and induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In summary, we have established an imaging based approach for non-invasive and longitudinal assessment of NF-κB activation and regulation during acute lung injury. This approach will potentiate further studies on NF-κB regulation under various inflammatory conditions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.