This paper characterizes the pattern of ectoparasite and endoparasite communities in an assemblage of 35 sympatric fish from different trophic levels in a tributary from the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. In detritivorous, carnivorous, omnivorous and piscivorous hosts, the species richness consisted of 82 ectoparasites and endoparasites, but protozoan ectoparasites such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare and Tripartiella sp. were dominant species predominated, such that they were present in 80% of the hosts. The taxon richness was in the following order: Monogenea > Nematoda > Digenea > Crustacea > Protozoa > Acanthocephala = Cestoda > Hirudinea. Among the hosts, the highest number of parasitic associations occurred in Satanoperca jurupari, Aequidens tetramerus, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, Hoplosternum littorale, Cichlasoma amazonarum, Chaetobranchus flavescens, Squaliforma emarginata, Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis and Hoplias malabaricus. A weak positive correlation between ectoparasite abundance and length of the hosts was observed. Ectoparasite communities of detritivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous hosts were similar, but these differed from the communities of piscivorous hosts. Larval endoparasite species with low host specificity were the main determinants of the parasite infracommunity structure of the fish assemblage. Fish assemblage had few species of helminth that were specialist endoparasites, while many were parasites at the larval stage, infecting intermediate and paratenic hosts. Finally, carnivorous and omnivorous hosts harbored endoparasite communities that were more heterogeneous than those of detritivorous and piscivorous hosts. This result lends supports to the notion that the feeding habits of the host species are a significant factor in determining the endoparasites fauna.
This study investigated the parasite fauna in Colossoma macropomum reared at two stocking densities in net-cages of a fish farm in the Matapi River, State of Amapá. Before stocking fish in the net-cages for fattening, fish were examined for parasites and also at the end of 90 and 180 days at densities of 50 and 100 fish m-3 , respectively. All fish were parasitized by one or more species such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium boegeri, Notozothecium janauachensis, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and Acarina gen. sp., but the dominance was of I. multifiliis. Parasites presented aggregated dispersion pattern, and there were no differences in the fish relative condition factor between the densities used. There was positive correlation of I. multifiliis abundance and monogenean abundance with length and weight of the hosts. Before fish stocking, the mean intensity and mean abundance of I. multifiliis, A. spathulatus and M. boegeri were lowest when comparing fish at densities of 50 and 100 fish m-3 , which were similar to each other. The mean intensity and mean abundance of N. janauachensis was highest in the density of 50 fish m-3 when comparing the fish before stocking and at a density of 100 fish m-³. The mean abundance of P. (S.) inopinatus was highest in fish kept at 100 fish m-³ when compared to fish before stocking and 50 fish m-³. However, P. pillulare and mites occurred only in density of 50 fish m-3. There was a predominance of ectoparasites and few endoparasites, as expected. Therefore, it is necessary the constant monitoring of the parasites, to better implement control strategies aiming to avoid the occurrence of diseases.
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