Novel strategies to combat the ever increasing burden of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causing tuberculosis (TB) remains a global concern. The ability of MTB to sense and adapt to restricted iron conditions in the hostile environment is essential for their survival and confers the basis of their success as dreadful pathogen. The striking and clinically relevant virulence trait of MTB is its ability to form biofilms and adhere to the host cells. The present study elucidated the effect of iron deprivation on biofilm formation and cell adherence of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic surrogate of MTB. Firstly, we showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced cell sedimentation rate and altered colony morphology depicting alterations in cell surface envelope properties. We explored that biofilm formation and cell adherence to polystyrene surface as well as human oral epithelial cells were considerably reduced under iron deprivation both in presence of 2,2 BP (iron chelator) and siderophore mutant Δ011-14 strain. We further investigated that the potency of three first line anti-TB drugs (Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Rifampicin) to inhibit both biofilm formation and cell adhesion were enhanced under iron deprivation in contrast to the drugs when tested alone. Taken together, by virtue of the indispensability of iron for functional virulence traits in mycobacteria, iron deprivation strategies could be further exploited against this notorious human pathogen to explore novel drug targets.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR.
Lipids are most adaptable molecules that acclimatize to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The precise molecular mechanism of this acclimatization achieved in (MTB) remains elusive. Although lipids of MTB have been characterized to some details, a comparable resource does not exist between drug sensitive (DS) and resistant (DR) strains of MTB. Here, by employing high-throughput mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, we attempted to analyze the differential lipidome profile of DS and DR MTB clinical isolates. We analyzed three major classes of lipids viz fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids and their respective subclasses. Notably, we observed differential fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids as evident from increased mycolic acids phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin and triacylglycerides abundance, respectively, which are crucial for MTB virulence and pathogenicity. Considering the fact that 30% of the MTB genome codes for lipid, this comprehensive lipidomic approach unravels extensive lipid alterations in DS and DR that will serve as a resource for identifying biomarkers aimed at disrupting the functions of MTB lipids responsible for MDR acquisition in MTB.
Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures. We have tried to give account of the alterations that occurred in DM making a person more prone to develop TB.
Continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs in treating Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has led to the emergence of drug resistance resulting in cross-resistance to many unrelated drugs, a phenomenon termed as Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR-TB). Despite reasonable documentation of major factors which contribute to MDR mechanisms, it appears unavoidable to consider novel mechanisms combating MDR. The ability of pathogenic MTB, to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host environment is essential for its survival and confers the basis of their success as dreadful pathogen. One such significant environmental factor that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, since they encounter diverse anatomical sites during the establishment of infection within the host. Considering the importance of MTB, being the second most common cause of mortality, this review focuses on gaining insights of iron acquisition mechanisms in MTB and how it can be exploited as efficient anti-mycobacterial drug target.
Significance of methylene blue (MB) in photodynamic therapy against microbes is well established. Previously, we have reported the antifungal potential of MB against Candida albicans. The present study attempts to identify additional antimicrobial effect of MB against another prevalent human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We explored that MB is efficiently inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium at 15.62 μg/ml albeit in bacteriostatic manner similar to its fungistatic nature. We uncovered additional cell surface phenotypes (colony morphology and cell sedimentation rate) which were impaired only in Mycobacterium. Mechanistic insights revealed that MB causes energy dependent membrane perturbation in both C. albicans and Mycobacterium. We also confirmed that MB leads to enhanced reactive oxygen species generation in both organisms that could be reversed upon antioxidant supplementation; however, DNA damage could only be observed in Mycobacterium. We provided evidence that although biofilm formation was disrupted in both organisms, cell adherence to human epithelial cells was inhibited only in Mycobacterium. Lastly, RT-PCR results showed good correlation with the biochemical assay. Together, apart from the well-established role of MB in photodynamic therapy, this study provides insights into the distinct antimicrobial mode of actions in two significant human pathogens, Candida and Mycobacterium, which can be extrapolated to improve our understanding of finding novel therapeutic options.
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