A novel idea presented in this paper is to exploit the OpenFlow technology to address relia bility, which is one of the most important factors in sensor networks. The proposed approach unified with flow-sensor and communication with controller. Hardware to programmable hardware, operating system to network operating system, vendor to owner specific, previous hardware defined networking (de vice monitoring, traffic controlling, and topology de finition) turns to be software defined and where eve rything leads to a programmable and customized networking system. OpenFlow bears the characteris tics to control the flow-sensor and monitor sensor traffic flow that also addresses another two impor tant problems robust routing and load balancing. Flow-sensor displayed much better performances in comparison to typical sensors through generating less number of packets with lower simulation time in ideal scenario and even better results are possible for larger networks.
Abstract-In the beginning of this millennium, researchers started to see the potential of using Augmented Reality (AR) in educational settings and foresaw that further research within the field is needed. Since then, AR research have taken many different approaches. This is also true for AR in relation to pedagogical purposes. In recent years, learning through mobile augmented reality has become increasingly interesting due to the mobile devices small form factors and their ability to let the students move around freely while learning. This study investigates mobile supported augmented reality for learning. It attempts to make a systematic review of how learning and pedagogical aspects have been approached in the articles. Based on a review of previous literature of mobile AR systems for pedagogical purposes, published between 2000-2017, we present findings demonstrating the mobile platforms used in AR studies, the educational levels focused, pedagogical approaches employed, and educational subjects focused. Based on these findings, trends are identified and future work discussed.Keywords-mobile augmented reality, mobile learning, systematic review, augmented reality, mobile devices
IntroductionIt was in the beginning of this millennium that researchers started to really see the potential of using AR in education and foresaw further research within the field  . Since then, many variations and approaches have been taken in the design of AR used for pedagogical purposes and there's a need for an overview of what has been studied within the field  Augmented Reality (AR) is a field in which virtual objects are integrated into a real environment in real time. As explained by , AR supplements the real world with virtual, computer-generated, objects that appear to coexist in the same space as the real world. In other words, AR is a way to enhance the real world and it may be achieved by adding a layer of virtual-objects on top of the real world.AR emerged as an own research field as late as in the 1990s due to its high technological demands . AR technologies can be helpful when a person is unable to detect something with his or her own senses. AR can be used to let a computational device process information which else would have taken longer time or even be impossible for a human. This includes calculations, comparisons and sorting of non-subjective objects which are tasks that computational devices are good at carrying out. Furthermore, AR could be used to blur out objects that are irrelevant.The use of mobile AR systems has opened up for new possibilities within the research field. As explained by , the smaller size on the devices solves previous problems with AR systems concerning its usability and scalability. These smaller mobile devices on which the AR system can be loaded have made the AR systems more user friendly and become even more available in everyday life. As  and  write that there is "a broad consumer interest in very small form factor devices and displays such as cell phones and ...
The Internet of things (IoT) will accommodate several billions of devices to the Internet to enhance human society as well as to improve the quality of living. A huge number of sensors, actuators, gateways, servers, and related end-user applications will be connected to the Internet. All these entities require identities to communicate with each other. The communicating devices may have mobility and currently, the only main identity solution is IP based identity management which is not suitable for the authentication and authorization of the heterogeneous IoT devices. Sometimes devices and applications need to communicate in real-time to make decisions within very short times. Most of the recently proposed solutions for identity management are cloud-based. Those cloud-based identity management solutions are not feasible for heterogeneous IoT devices. In this paper, we have proposed an edge-fog based decentralized identity management and authentication solution for IoT devices (IoTD) and edge IoT gateways (EIoTG). We have also presented a secure communication protocol for communication between edge IoT devices and edge IoT gateways. The proposed security protocols are verified using Scyther formal verification tool, which is a popular tool for automated verification of security protocols. The proposed model is specified using the PROMELA language. SPIN model checker is used to confirm the specification of the proposed model. The results show different message flows without any error.
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