P eripheral artery disease (PAD) is common, affecting between 8 and 12 million US residents.  Treatment strategies are well defined for aortoiliac vessels, 4 yet the initial success and durability of endovascular therapy in the femoropopliteal artery is limited by the diffuse nature of the disease, presence of calcification, heavy plaque burden, and high prevalence of total occlusion. Furthermore, dynamic forces (compression, torsion, bending, lengthening,
The EXCITE ISR trial is the first large, prospective, randomized study to demonstrate superiority of ELA + PTA versus PTA alone for treating femoropopliteal ISR. (Randomized Study of Laser and Balloon Angioplasty Versus Balloon Angioplasty to Treat Peripheral In-stent Restenosis [EXCITE ISR]; NCT01330628).
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains a poorly understood, rarely reported, and inconsistently treated major global healthcare epidemic. The incidence in the US is estimated at 1% of the population aged 50 years and older and at approximately double that rate in the over-70 age group. These frequencies are expected to increase significantly with the aging population and the expected increase in diabetes. Within 1 year of being diagnosed with CLI, 40% to 50% of the now 20 million US diabetics will experience an amputation, and 20% to 25% will die. The estimate for treating CLI in the US alone is $10 to $20 billion per year, but just a 25% reduction in amputations could save $2.9 to $3.0 billion annually. Infrainguinal bypass surgery (IBS) utilizing autogenous saphenous vein has been considered the "24-carat gold standard" treatment for CLI, but over the last decade, endovascular therapy has emerged to seriously challenge IBS, which has created considerable controversy. Despite an overall lack of "hard" level I data, many interventionists are questioning the role of IBS as a first-line CLI therapy or are at least now considering IBS a "tainted" gold standard ("14-carat"). This review will examine the available evidence, but there should be no doubt regarding the huge global clinical and economic impact of CLI and amputations.
Ibutilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent used for the termination of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It mainly affects membrane potassium currents and prolongs the cardiac action potential. This effect is reflected as QT interval prolongation on the surface electrocardiogram. Like other drugs that affect potassium currents, ibutilide is prone to induce a malignant ventricular tachycardia, torsade de pointes. We report four cases of torsade de pointes after administration of ibutilide for pharmacologic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter; three of these cases required direct current cardioversion for termination of torsade de pointes. All four patients were female. We discuss the risk factors for development of ibutilide-induced torsade de pointes.
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