Padrões de consumo de álcool e fatores associados entre adultos usuários de serviço de atenção básica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, BrasilPatterns of alcohol consumption and associated factors among adult users of primary health care services of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Objective: to investigate the incidence of pressure injury in cancer patients of an intensive care unit. Method: A longitudinal study with 105 patients admitted to an oncological intensive care unit. The incidence rate was calculated as the number of events per 100 patient-days. Cumulative incidence was calculated both globally and according to selected characteristics, and submitted to hypothesis tests. Results: incidence rate per 100 patient-days was 1.32, and global cumulative incidence was 29.5%. A higher incidence was observed in patients with chronic diseases who had at least one episode of diarrhea, received enteral nutrition, and took vasoactive or sedative drugs for a prolonged period of time. Regarding type of tumour and antineoplastic treatments, no differences in incidence were observed. Conclusion: A high cumulative global incidence of pressure lesion was reported in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit, although tumour characteristics and antineoplastic treatments did not affect incidence.
Cervical cancer (CC) is a public health problem with a high disease burden and mortality in developing countries. In Brazil, areas with low human development index have the highest incidence rates of Brazil and upward temporal trend for this disease. The Northeast region has the second highest incidence of cervical cancer (20.47 new cases / 100,000 women). In this region, the mortality rates are similar to rates in countries that do not have a health system with a universal access screening program, as in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of age, period and birth cohorts on mortality from cervical cancer in the Northeast region of Brazil. Estimable functions predicted the effects of age, period and birth cohort. The average mortality rate was 10.35 deaths per 100,000 women during the period analyzed (1980-2014). The highest mortality rate per 100,000 women was observed in Maranhão (24.39 deaths), and the lowest mortality rate was observed in Bahia (11.24 deaths). According to the period effects, only the state of Rio Grande do Norte showed a reduction in mortality risk in the five years of the 2000s. There was a reduction in mortality risk for birth cohorts of women after the 1950s, except in Maranhão State, which showed an increasing trend in mortality risk for younger generations. We found that the high rates of cervical cancer mortality in the states of northeastern Brazil remain constant over time. Even after an increase in access to health services in the 2000s, associated with increased access to the cancer care network, which includes early detection (Pap Test), cervical cancer treatment and palliative care. However, it is important to note that the decreased risk of death and the mortality rates from CC among women born after the 1960s may be correlated with increased screening coverage, as well as increased access to health services for cancer treatment observed in younger women.
Objective:to evaluate the effect of music therapy on the stress of chemically dependent people. Method:quasi-experimental study conducted at a philanthropic institution with 18 chemically dependent people undergoing treatment. Salivary cortisol (stress hormone) was collected in three moments: before, 60 minutes after, and 120 minutes after a music therapy group intervention. Statistical analysis adopted a significance level of p < 0.05 and used the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. Results:after 60 minutes of intervention, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean salivary cortisol levels (p < 0.001). A reduction was also noted after 120 minutes, but without statistical significance (p = 0.139). Conclusion:a single session of 60 minutes of group music therapy was able to reduce stress (salivary cortisol levels) of chemically dependent people.
Objectives: To identify harmful alcohol consumption among users of a Family Health Unit, analyzing its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted with 1,115 subjects who responded to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test and questions referring to sociodemographic variables. Data were submitted to tests of association, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: An elevated prevalence was observed of harmful alcohol consumption (31.0%), strongly associated with male gender, low education level and family income. Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of harmful alcohol consumption strongly associated with male patients, with lower education and income up to two times the minimum wage. Descriptors: Alcohol drinking; Cross-sectional studies; Primary health care; Public health nursing RESUMOObjetivos: Identifi car o consumo nocivo de álcool entre usuários de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família, analisando sua associação com características sociodemográfi cas. Métodos: Estudo seccional realizado com 1.115 sujeitos que responderam ao Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test e a perguntas referentes às variáveis sociodemográfi cas. Os dados foram submetidos a testes de associação, utilizando o programa estatístico Statistical Package Social Science. Resultados: Observou-se elevada prevalência de consumo nocivo de álcool (31,0%), fortemente associado ao sexo masculino, ao baixo nível de escolaridade e à renda familiar mensal. Conclusão: Observou-se a elevada prevalência do consumo nocivo de álcool fortemente associado a pacientes do sexo masculino, à baixa escolaridade e à renda mensal até 2 salários mínimos. Descritores: Consumo de bebidas alcoólicas; Estudos transversais; Atenção primária à saúde; Enfermagem em saúde pública RESUMEN Objetivos: Identifi car el consumo nocivo de alcohol entre usuarios de una Unidad de Salud de la Familia, analizando su asociación con caracterís-ticas sociodemográfi cas. Métodos: Estudio seccional realizado con 1.115 sujetos que respondieron al Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test y a las preguntas referentes a las variables sociodemográfi cas. Los datos fueron sometidos a tests de asociación, utilizando el programa estadístico Statistical Package Social Science. Resultados: Se observó una elevada prevalencia de consumo nocivo de alcohol (31,0%), fuertemente asociado al sexo masculino, al bajo nivel de escolaridad y al ingreso familiar mensual. Conclusión: Se observó una elevada prevalencia de consumo nocivo de alcohol fuertemente asociado a pacientes del sexo masculino, a la baja escolaridad y al ingreso mensual de hasta 2 sueldos mínimos. Descriptores: Consumo de bebidas alcohólicas; Estudios transversales; Atención primaria de salud; Enfermería en salud pública
Objective: analyze income and work conditions of nurses in Brazil in 2000 and 2010. Methods: based on demographic census samples, socioeconomic characteristics of nurses were described according to income and work hours. Statistic models estimated the chances (odds ratios) of nurses having lower income despite working more than 40 hours per week. Results: the nurse population in Brazil grew at a rate of 12.5% per year. In the two study periods, approximately 11.0% of nurses received the lowest incomes and worked more than 40 hours per week. The most pronounced chances of belonging to this group were observed for those residing in the interior the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. They were also more elevated for nurses whose color/race was black or brown (pardo) and who lived with their parents. Conclusion and implications for the practice: the expressive increase in nurses occurred within the context of reduced socioeconomic inequalities. Less favorable work conditions were most evident for those classified as black and brown who lived in their parents’ homes. We argue that the scenarios described may be related to the expansion of university educational institutions during the first decade of the twenty-first century, among other aspects.
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