Brucella is one of the major zoonotic pathogens worldwide, and it is responsible for enormous economic losses as well as considerable human morbidity in endemic areas. The organism infects animals such as swine, cattle, goat, sheep, and dogs. Humans can become infected indirectly through contact with infected animals or by animal products consumption. Brucellosis occurs worldwide, but it is well controlled in most developed countries. The disease is rare in industrialized nations because of routine screening of domestic livestock and animal vaccination programmes. Clinical disease is still common in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, South and Central America, the Mediterranean Basin, and the Caribbean. This review article aims to describe the prevalence of brucellosis in some countries where data are available around different regions of world, and risk factors associated infections according regression models.
Cattle lameness is an important welfare concern that also has an economic impact on the dairy industry. It can be a significant problem among pasture-based herds. Our objectives were to identify cow-and herdlevel factors related to lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows grazing year-round in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional study in 48 pasturebased dairy herds, visiting each farm in a single visit. We evaluated 2,262 cows for mobility score (0-3) and 392 cows for hoof lesions. We used a questionnaire and checklist to capture herd management data. All information obtained was used to build multivariable models. The factors associated with lameness were low body condition score, longer time spent in the corral, being kept in paddocks during the drought period, and poor hygiene. For hoof lesions, track features were the most significant factor in determining the likelihood of heel horn erosion, white line fissure, and sole hemorrhage-by more than 3 times. Different factors related to unhygienic conditions such as leg cleanliness, frequency of cleaning, and longer time spent in the corral were associated with infectious hoof lesions. Poor human-animal relationship was related to sole hemorrhage, but patient handling of cows on the track was a protective factor against interdigital hyperplasia. The results of this study suggest that improving hygiene conditions, track features, and cow handling can improve dairy cattle mobility scores in pasture-based farms under tropical conditions. These findings also represent a first step toward planning actions aimed at decreasing lameness and hoof lesions in the studied region.
Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies.
Lameness is a growing concern to the dairy industry worldwide. However, little is known about lameness and its causes in grazing cattle, especially in tropical climates. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of hoof lesions and lameness in dairy herds of all year-round grazing cattle under tropical condition, and to identify the main lesions associated with lameness. We visited 48 farms located in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, equally divided into four groups based on daily milk production. All lactating cows in the visited farms were locomotion scored, and a representative sample was randomly chosen for hoof inspection. Among the 2267 lactating cows evaluated, 16% were scored as lame and 7% as severely lame. Nearly all cows presented at least one type of hoof lesion, of which heel horn erosion (90%), white line fissure (50%), and digital dermatitis (33%) were the most prevalent. Heel horn erosion was present in all farms and digital dermatitis was present in 96% of the farms. Sole ulcer was observed in a single animal. Additionally, digital dermatitis and white line fissure were correlated to a 2.5 times increase in the odds of a poor mobility score. Collectively, our results demonstrate that digital dermatitis and white line fissure are the main concern and the biggest cause of lameness in grazing cattle under tropical conditions.
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