Few studies have investigated and proposed a middleware solution for the Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT), where the smart things (Smart Objects) can be moved, or else can move autonomously, and yet remain accessible and controllable remotely from any other computer over the Internet. Examples of mobile Smart Objects include vehicles of any kind, wearable devices, sensor tags, mobile robots, etc, anyhing with embedded sensors and/or actuators. In this context of general mobility of objects, mobile personal devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are well suited as the universal providers of Internet connectivity and location information for simpler smart objects that lack location sensors and have only short-range wireless interfaces. This paper describes Mobile Hub (M-Hub), a generic mobile middleware for IoMT, its design and prototype implementation for Android and Bluetooth. The Mobile Hub extends our previous mobile-cloud communication middleware SDDL, so that it is able to provide scalable and reliable mobile communication and data processing capabilities to mobile smart objects. Preliminary experiments have shown that our implementation of M-Hub delivers good mobility responsiveness and that the concept is suitable for IoT applications that require opportunistic discovery and connection to a variety of mobile Smart Objects.
Applications such as transportation management and logistics, emergency response, environmental monitoring and mobile workforce management employ mobile networks as a means of enabling communication and coordination among a possibly very large set of mobile nodes. The majority of those systems may thus require real-time tracking of the nodes and interaction with all participant nodes as well as a means of adaptability in a very dynamic scenario. In this paper, we present a middleware communication service based on the OMG DDS standard that supports on-line tracking and unicast, groupcast and broadcast with several thousand mobile nodes. We then show a Fleet Tracking and Management application built using or middleware, and present the performance results in LAN and WAN settings to evaluate our middleware in terms of scalability and robustness.
The current ubiquity of smart phones with mobile Internet and several short-range wireless interfaces (NFC, Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart) and the fact that these devices are carried almost anytime and anywhere by users, enables potentially new pervasive sensing applications where smartphones can act as universal hubs for interaction with sensors (or sensor networks) that have only short-range wireless connectivity. Thus, in next years we can expect an increasing number of long-term and large-scale deployments for various crowd-sourced monitoring applications, such as environment monitoring, domestic utility meter reading, urban monitoring, etc. In this paper, we present the implementation and initial performance results with our mobile-cloud middleware that enables such opportunistic mobile sensing. One of the singular features of our middleware is the capability to discover, dynamically download and install sensor-specific transcoding modules on the mobile phone according to the encountered sensor type and make.
Several new applications of mobile computing environments, such as Intelligent Transportation Systems, Fleet Management and Logistics, and integrated Industrial Process Automation share the requirement of remote monitoring and high performance processing of huge data streams produced by large sets of mobile nodes. Two key requirements for the deployment and operation of such mobile infrastructures are the handling of large and variable numbers of wireless connections to the monitored mobile nodes regardless of their current use or locations, and to automatically adapt to variations in the volume of the mobile data streams. This article describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of an autonomic mechanism for load balancing of mobile data streams. The autonomic capability has been incorporated into a scalable middleware system based on a Data Centric Publish Subscribe approach using the OMG Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard and aimed at real-time and adaptive handling of mobile connectivity and data stream processing for great sets of mobile nodes. A significant amount of evaluation experiments of the proposed infrastructure is presented, reinforcing its viability and the benefits arising from the use of an autonomic approach to handle the requirements of high variability and scalability.
The majority of fatal car crashes are caused by reckless driving. With the sophistication of vehicle instrumentation, reckless maneuvers, such as abrupt turns, acceleration, and deceleration, can now be accurately detected by analyzing data related to the driver-vehicle interactions. Such analysis usually requires very specific in-vehicle hardware and infrastructure sensors (e.g. loop detectors and radars), which can be costly. Hence, in this paper, we investigated if off-the-shelf smartphones can be used to online detect and classify the driver's behavior in near real-time. To do so, we first modeled and performed an intrinsic evaluation to assess the performance of three outlier detection algorithms formulated as a data stream processing network which receives as input and processes data streams of smartphone and vehicle sensors. Next, we implemented a novel scoring mechanism based on online outlier detection to quantitatively evaluate drivers' maneuvers as either cautious or reckless. Thus, we adapted a data mining mechanism which takes into account a sensor's data rates and power to determine driver behavior in the scoring process. Finally, as the intrinsic evaluation does not necessarily reveal how well an algorithm will perform in a real-world scenario, we evaluated the algorithm that achieved the best result in a real-world case study to assess drivers' driving behavior. Our results indicate that the algorithm performs quickly and accurately; the algorithm classifies driver behavior with 95.45% accuracy. Moreover, such results are obtained within 100 milliseconds of processing time on average.
Applications such as transportation management and logistics, emergency response, environmental monitoring or mobile workforce management, employ mobile networks as means of enabling communication and coordination among a possibly very large set of mobile nodes. The majority of those systems thus may require real-time tracking of the nodes, interaction with all participant nodes, as well as means of adaptability in a very dynamic scenario. In this paper we present a middleware communication service that supports real-time tracking of several thousands of mobile nodes, demand adaptability, as well as three modes of communication between the nodes: unicast, groupcast and broadcast. We then show Fleet Tracking and Management system and use it to evaluate our middleware.
The design and development of adaptive systems brings new challenges since the dynamism of such systems is a multifaceted concern that range from mechanisms to enable the adaptation on the software level to the (self-) management of the entire system using adaptation plans or system administrator, for instance. Networked and mobile embedded systems are examples of systems where dynamic adaptation become even more necessary as the applications must be capable of discovering the computing resources in their near environment. While most of the current research is concerned with low-level adaptation techniques (i.e., how to dynamically deploy new components or change parameters), we are focused in providing management of distributed dynamic adaptation and facilitating the development of adaptation plans. In this paper, we present a middleware tailored for mobile embedded systems that supports distributed dynamic software adaptation, in transactional and non-transactional fashion, among mobile devices. We also present results of initial evaluation.
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