Toxoplasmosis is caused by the globally distributed protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (phylum Apicomplexa); the disease can be clinically important for almost all homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. Toxoplasmosis course involves general clinical signs, such as fever, anorexia, or dyspnea, and more specific signs with neural, respiratory, cutaneous, or ocular involvement. Because of the wide range of clinical signs, the diagnosis in domestic and pet animals can be complicated. Hence, this review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of some scarcely discussed aspects of toxoplasmosis, such as ocular and cutaneous manifestations, congenital infections, influence of T. gondii genotype on clinical toxoplasmosis, and recent findings regarding differential diagnosis. This review could be of special interest to clinicians and researchers.
Little information is currently available on the epidemiology of parasitic and commensal protist species in captive non-human primates (NHP) and their zoonotic potential. This study investigates the occurrence, molecular diversity, and potential transmission dynamics of parasitic and commensal protist species in a zoological garden in southern Spain. The prevalence and genotypes of the main enteric protist species were investigated in faecal samples from NHP (n = 51), zookeepers (n = 19) and free-living rats (n = 64) by molecular (PCR and sequencing) methods between 2018 and 2019. The presence of Leishmania spp. was also investigated in tissues from sympatric rats using PCR. Blastocystis sp. (45.1%), Entamoeba dispar (27.5%), Giardia duodenalis (21.6%), Balantioides coli (3.9%), and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (2.0%) (but not Troglodytella spp.) were detected in NHP. Giardia duodenalis (10.5%) and Blastocystis sp. (10.5%) were identified in zookeepers, while Cryptosporidium spp. (45.3%), G. duodenalis (14.1%), and Blastocystis sp. (6.25%) (but not Leishmania spp.) were detected in rats. Blastocystis ST1, ST3, and ST8 and G. duodenalis sub-assemblage AII were identified in NHP, and Blastocystis ST1 in zookeepers. Giardia duodenalis isolates failed to be genotyped in human samples. In rats, four Cryptosporidium (C. muris, C. ratti, and rat genotypes IV and V), one G. duodenalis (assemblage G), and three Blastocystis (ST4) genetic variants were detected. Our results indicate high exposure of NHP to zoonotic protist species. Zoonotic transmission of Blastocysts ST1 was highly suspected between captive NHP and zookeepers.
Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.Keywords: Neospora caninum, neosporosis, domestic animals, wild animals, Brazil. ResumoNeospora caninum é um protozoário parasita que possui os canídeos domésticos e selvagens, coiotes e lobos cinzentos como hospedeiros definitivos e vários animais de sangue quente como hospedeiros intermediários. Foi cultivado e nomeado em 1988. A neosporose é uma das principais doenças em bovinos e não tem significância em saúde pública. Desde 1990, N. caninum tem emergido como uma das principais causas de aborto em bovinos em todo o mundo, inclusive no Brasil. N. caninum também causa infecções clínicas em várias outras espécies animais. Consideráveis avanços foram feitos na compreensão da biologia desse parasita e há mais de 200 trabalhos sobre o assunto no Brasil. No entanto, a maioria dos relatos de neosporose do Brasil são relacionados a sorologia. Em geral, pouco se sabe sobre a neosporose clínica no Brasil, particularmente em bovinos. Os poucos relatos referem-se a casos esporádicos de aborto sem informações sobre epidemias ou surtos de aborto. O objetivo da presente revisão é resumir todos os relatos sobre N. caninum no Brasil e sugerir tópicos para pesquisas futuras, incluindo a prevalência de oocistos de N. caninum no solo ou em fezes caninas e determinar se há hospedeiros definitivos adicionais, exceto o cão doméstico no país. Uma pesquisa nacional em bovinos usando parâmetros definidos seria de grande importância. Pesquisas futuras deveriam ser focadas na caracterização de cepas de N. caninum, possibilidade de produção de vacinas e a relação epidemiológica entre a vida selvagem e o gado.Palavras-chave: Neospora caninum, neospo...
During 2011–2015, we conducted a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) survey in captured ticks that were feeding mainly on wild and domestic ungulates in Spain, where presence of this virus had been reported previously. We detected CCHFV RNA in Hyalomma lusitanicum and H. marginatum ticks for 3 of the 5 years. The rate of infected ticks was 2.78% (44/1,579), which was similar to those for other countries in Europe with endemic foci for CCHFV (Kosovo, Bulgaria, and Albania). These data confirm the established spread of CCHFV into western Europe. Phylogenetic study of the small RNA segment showed Africa-3 clade as the only genotype identified, although we observed cocirculation of genetic variants during 2011 and 2015. We could not rule out genetic reassortments because of lack of sequence data for the medium and large RNA segments of the virus genome.
Microsporidia comprises a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. Among Microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected species in humans and animals worldwide bringing into question the possible role of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen. Although E. bieneusi is an emerging zoonotic pathogen able to infect many domestic and wild mammals that could act as reservoir of infection for humans and other animals, only few studies have documented its occurrence in wild carnivores. To determine the occurrence of E. bieneusi in wild carnivores, we examined 190 wild carnivores collected from different locations in Spain. Twenty-five fecal samples (13.2%) from three host species (European badger, beech marten, and red fox) were E. bieneusi-positive by PCR. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region revealed a high degree of genetic diversity with a total of eight distinct genotypes including four known (PtEbIX, S5, S9, and WildBoar3) and four novel (EbCar1-EbCar4) genotypes identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four novel genotypes (EbCar1-EbCar4), S5, S9, and WildBoar3 clustered within the previously designated zoonotic Group 1. Our results demonstrate that human-pathogenic genotypes are present in wild carnivores, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination.
Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of abortion in small ruminants and presents a zoonotic risk when undercooked meat containing cysts is consumed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity among the T. gondii strains circulating in ovine livestock in Spain. Methods Selected samples collected from abortion outbreaks due to toxoplasmosis (n = 31) and from chronically infected adult sheep at slaughterhouses (n = 50) in different Spanish regions were bioassayed in mice, aiming at parasite isolation. In addition, all original clinical samples and the resulting isolates were genotyped by multi-nested PCR-RFLP analysis of 11 molecular markers and by PCR-DNA sequencing of portions of the SAG3, GRA6 and GRA7 genes. Results As a result, 30 isolates were obtained from 9 Spanish regions: 10 isolates from abortion-derived samples and 20 isolates from adult myocardial tissues. Overall, 3 genotypes were found: ToxoDB#3 (type II PRU variant) in 90% (27/30) of isolates, ToxoDB#2 (clonal type III) in 6.7% (2/30), and ToxoDB#1 (clonal type II) in 3.3% (1/30). When T. gondii-positive tissue samples (n = 151) were directly subjected to RFLP genotyping, complete restriction profiles were obtained for 33% of samples, and up to 98% of the specimens belonged to the type II PRU variant. A foetal brain showed a clonal type II pattern, and four specimens showed unexpected type I alleles at the SAG3 marker, including two foetal brains that showed I + II alleles as co-infection events. Amplicons of SAG3, GRA6 and GRA7 obtained from isolates and clinical samples were subjected to sequencing, allowing us to confirm RFLP results and to detect different single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusions The present study informed the existence of a predominant type II PRU variant genotype (ToxoDB#3) infecting domestic sheep in Spain, in both abortion cases and chronic infections in adults, coexisting with other clonal (ToxoDB#1 and ToxoDB#2), much less frequent genotypes, as well as polymorphic strains as revealed by clinical sample genotyping. The use of multilocus sequence typing aided in accurately estimating T. gondii intragenotype diversity.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers