Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow noncellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles encountered in secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria. Here, we employed the "adaptor scaffoldin" strategy to compensate for the low levels of protein displayed on the bacterial cell surface. That strategy mimics natural elaborated cellulosome architectures, thus exploiting the exponential features of their Lego-like combinatorics. Using this approach, we produced several bacterial consortia of , a potent gut microbe which provides a very robust genetic framework for lignocellulosic degradation. We successfully engineered surface display of large, fully active self-assembling cellulosomal complexes containing an unprecedented number of catalytic subunits all produced by the cell consortia. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme stability and performance of the cellulosomal machinery, which are superior to those seen with the equivalent secreted free enzyme system, and the high cellulase-to-xylanase ratios proved beneficial for efficient degradation of wheat straw. The multiple benefits of lactic acid bacteria are well established in health and industry. Here we present an approach designed to extensively increase the cell surface display of proteins via successive assembly of interactive components. Our findings present a stepping stone toward proficient engineering of , a widespread, environmentally important bacterium and potent microbiome member, for improved degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and advanced probiotics.
Aptamers and antibodies are compared as capture probes in a porous silicon-based optical biosensor for detection of a target protein.
The beneficial effect upon osteogenesis of imprenating bone grafts with autologous red marrow is well documented. The experimental findings reported in a previous paper suggested that prepared xenograft bone might provide a good medium for osteogenesis by marrow cells. This paper is a preliminary report of the first clinical attempt to use xenografts of bone combined with autologous red marrow. Kiel bone, which was found the most suitable, was impregnated with marrow aspirated from the iliac crest and, apart from one case of infection, gave excellent results in twenty-eight patients under conditions covering a wide range of indications for bone grafting. Further trials should allow a more valid assessment.
Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium that contains a battery of degrading enzymes for the utilization of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, including xylan, arabinan and galactan. A 9.4 kb gene cluster has recently been characterized in G. stearothermophilus that encodes a number of galactan-utilization elements. A key enzyme of this degradation system is Gan42B, an intracellular GH42 β-galactosidase capable of hydrolyzing short β-1,4-galactosaccharides into galactose units, making it of high potential for various biotechnological applications. The Gan42B monomer is made up of 686 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Glu323 is the catalytic nucleophile and Glu159 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Gan42B (at 2.45 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant E323A (at 2.50 Å resolution), as determined by X-ray crystallography, are reported. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Gan42B monomer generally correlates with the overall fold observed for GH42 proteins, consisting of three main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain, a smaller mixed α/β domain, and the smallest all-β domain at the C-terminus. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain in a pocket-like active site such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.3 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. The crystal structure demonstrates that Gan42B is a homotrimer, resembling a flowerpot in general shape, in which each monomer interacts with the other two to form a cone-shaped tunnel cavity in the centre. The cavity is ∼35 Å at the wide opening and ∼5 Å at the small opening and ∼40 Å in length. The active sites are situated at the interfaces between the monomers, so that every two neighbouring monomers participate in the formation of each of the three active sites of the trimer. They are located near the small opening of the cone tunnel, all facing the centre of the cavity. The biological relevance of this trimeric structure is supported by independent results obtained from gel-permeation chromatography. These data and their comparison to the structural data of related GH42 enzymes are used for a more general discussion concerning structure-activity aspects in this GH family.
The purpose of this investigation was to verify a long-standing clinical observation that patients with fracture of the proximal end of the femur have less evidence of osteoarthritic changes in their hip joints than would have been expected in patients of similar age groups. The radiographs of 342 patients with fractures and those of 157 controls were examined. The statistical results gave uncontroversial evidence that the incidence of osteoarthritic joints was lower in the fracture group. The difference was even greater with severe osteoarthritic changes. This suggests that patients with osteoarthritis have a "better quality" of bone. They are less likely to be suffering from osteoporosis and less liable to fractures of the proximal end of the femur.
Edited by Miguel De la RosaKeywords: b-L-Arabinopyranosidase Glycoside hydrolase family 27 Arabinopyranose Sugar beet arabinan Larch arabinogalactan 13 C NMR a b s t r a c tIn this study we demonstrate that the abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a family 27 glycoside hydrolase b-L-arabinopyranosidase. The catalytic constants towards the chromogenic substrate pNP-b-L-arabinopyranoside were 0.8 ± 0.1 mM, 6.6 ± 0.3 s À1 , and 8.2 ± 0.3 s À1 mM À1for K m , k cat and k cat /K m , respectively. 13C NMR spectroscopy unequivocally showed that Abp is capable of removing b-L-arabinopyranose residues from the natural arabino-polysaccharide, larch arabinogalactan. Most family 27 enzymes are active on galactose and contain a conserved Asp residue, whereas in Abp this residue is Ile67, which shifts the specificity of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside.
L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer made up of two `open-pincers' dimers, which clamp around each other to form a central cavity. The four active sites of the Abp tetramer are situated on the inner surface of this cavity, all opening into the central space of the cavity. The biological relevance of this tetrameric structure is supported by independent results obtained from size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. These data and their comparison to the structural data of related GH27 enzymes are used for a more general discussion concerning structure-selectivity aspects in this glycoside hydrolase (GH) family.
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