The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32) for meat production and G2 (n=32) for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity) and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation
The objective of this research was to isolate and to verify the sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from poultry products in the state of Ceara, Brazil. A total number of 114 samples was collected from 63 broiler carcasses derived from two processing plants and two supermarkets, and 51 excreta samples were collected in broiler farms located in the state of Ceara, which used three live production stages. Each excreta sample consisted of a fresh excreta pool from 100 birds. Samples were submitted to microbiological analyses, and the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. No Salmonella was isolated from excreta samples, while broiler carcass samples showed a high contamination rate of11.8%. Three serotypes were identified: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 50%; Salmonella enterica serovar Panama 33%, and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, 17%. As to the susceptibility tests to antimicrobial agents, 100% of the isolated Salmonella strains showed resistance to Ampicillin and Tetracycline, and sensitivity to Gentamycin, Netilmycin, Carbenicillin, Chloramphenicol.
Salmonella Gallinarum is the agent of fowl typhoid in poultry and infects mainly adult galliforms, causing significant economic losses in poultry production. Because quails are susceptible to this disease and quail production is becoming increasingly important in Brazil, this study was carried out to evaluate the virulence of Salmonella Gallinarum strain to quails. The inoculum was prepared from S. Gallinarum strain resistant to nalidixic acid. Forty eight 16-week-old Japanese quails were randomly distributed in three groups. Before the experiment, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds in order to confirm they were free from Salmonella spp. Cloacal swabs and fecal samples were collected on days 03, 06, 09, 12, and 15 post-inoculation. Birds that died during the experiment were submitted to post-mortem examination, and had their organs aseptically collected for bacteriological examination. All eggs produced during the experiment were also examined. The mortality rate recorded during the experiment was 43.75% (21/48). S. Gallinarum was recovered from the organs of the birds that naturally died during the experiment, but the agent was not isolated from the organs of sacrificed birds. No egg sample was positive for Salmonella Gallinarum. It was concluded that S. Gallinarum may be recovered from the organs of experimentally-infected Japanese quails.
The psittacine Pyrrhura griseipectus is a threatened species currently only found in Ceará State, Brazil. A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the composition of the enteric microbiota of this species, as well as the phenotypic profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility presented by the isolates. Cloacal swabs were collected from individual birds and submitted to microbiological processing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Bacteria of the genus Escherichia,
This study showed a low prevalence of Salmonellaspp. in captive psittacines from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza. None of the isolated serotypes (S. Lexington, S. Saintpaul and S. Newport) have yet been reported in Amazona aestiva, Ara chloropteraor Melopsittacus undulatus. However, the fact that most birds presented negative for Salmonellaspp. may not imply the absence of this pathogen in these birds, since the intermittent excretion is a well-known characteristic of this microorganism.
The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG). Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV) presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory
Eggs, forced molting, zinc oxide, fasting, wheat midds diet.Submitted: July/2011 Approved: December/2012
ABStRACtThe aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella in common quails submitted to forced molting. A total of 240 quails were divided at 40 weeks of age into four groups: CG (control, quails not submitted to molting); FM (fasting method); WM (fed wheat midds ad libitum); and ZM (zinc oxide method). From each group, 10 cloacal swabs, 10 fecal samples, and 20 egg samples were collected before molting (two weeks) and after molting (two weeks). The microbiological procedures for Salmonella spp. identification were performed in four steps. The agglutination test, using somatic and flagellar antigens, was used to confirm Salmonella-suspected colonies. According to the methodology applied, none of the samples was positive for Salmonella spp. The results showed that 20.0% of the egg samples from birds submitted to forced molting were contaminated with enterobacteria. It was concluded that, under the conditions of the present experiment, the stress caused by forced molting did not induce infection by Salmonella spp. or increased Enterobacteriaceae contamination levels in the eggs.
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