We conducted comprehensive integrative molecular analyses of the complete set of tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), consisting of approximately 10,000 specimens and representing 33 types of cancer. We performed molecular clustering using data on chromosome-arm-level aneuploidy, DNA hypermethylation, mRNA, and miRNA expression levels and reverse-phase protein arrays, of which all, except for aneuploidy, revealed clustering primarily organized by histology, tissue type, or anatomic origin. The influence of cell type was evident in DNA-methylation-based clustering, even after excluding sites with known preexisting tissue-type-specific methylation. Integrative clustering further emphasized the dominant role of cell-of-origin patterns. Molecular similarities among histologically or anatomically related cancer types provide a basis for focused pan-cancer analyses, such as pan-gastrointestinal, pan-gynecological, pan-kidney, and pan-squamous cancers, and those related by stemness features, which in turn may inform strategies for future therapeutic development.
Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas.
We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes.
Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma.
The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)
The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, is the largest population-based registry focused exclusively on primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States (US) and represents the entire US population. This report contains the most up-to-date population-based data on primary brain tumors available and supersedes all previous reports in terms of completeness and accuracy. All rates are age-adjusted using the 2000 US standard population and presented per 100,000 population. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAAIR) of all malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 23.41 (Malignant AAAIR = 7.08, non-Malignant AAAIR = 16.33). This rate was higher in females compared to males (25.84 versus 20.82), Whites compared to Blacks (23.50 versus 23.34), and non-Hispanics compared to Hispanics (23.84 versus 21.28). The most commonly occurring malignant brain and other CNS tumor was glioblastoma (14.6% of all tumors), and the most common non-malignant tumor was meningioma (37.6% of all tumors). Glioblastoma was more common in males, and meningioma was more common in females. In children and adolescents (age 0–19 years), the incidence rate of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 6.06. An estimated 86,010 new cases of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2019 (25,510 malignant and 60,490 non-malignant). There were 79,718 deaths attributed to malignant brain and other CNS tumors between 2012 and 2016. This represents an average annual mortality rate of 4.42. The five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a malignant brain and other CNS tumor was 35.8%, and the five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 91.5%.
Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, representing 81% of malignant brain tumors. Although relatively rare, they cause significant mortality and morbidity. Glioblastoma, the most common glioma histology (∼45% of all gliomas), has a 5-year relative survival of ∼5%. A small portion of these tumors are caused by Mendelian disorders, including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genomic analyses of glioma have also produced new evidence about risk and prognosis. Recently discovered biomarkers that indicate improved survival include O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and a glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified heritable risk alleles within 7 genes that are associated with increased risk of glioma. Many risk factors have been examined as potential contributors to glioma risk. Most significantly, these include an increase in risk by exposure to ionizing radiation and a decrease in risk by history of allergies or atopic disease(s). The potential influence of occupational exposures and cellular phones has also been examined, with inconclusive results. We provide a “state of the science” review of current research into causes and risk factors for gliomas in adults.
This report presents the following population-based measures: incidence rates, mortality rates, and relative survival rates (for more information on definitions of terms and measures used see: http://www.cbtrus.org/glossary/ glossary1.html).
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