BackgroundWhile human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection continue to increase globally, available clinical data on H5N1 cases are limited. We conducted a retrospective study of 26 confirmed human H5N1 cases identified through surveillance in China from October 2005 through April 2008.Methodology/Principal FindingsData were collected from hospital medical records of H5N1 cases and analyzed. The median age was 29 years (range 6–62) and 58% were female. Many H5N1 cases reported fever (92%) and cough (58%) at illness onset, and had lower respiratory findings of tachypnea and dyspnea at admission. All cases progressed rapidly to bilateral pneumonia. Clinical complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 81%), cardiac failure (50%), elevated aminotransaminases (43%), and renal dysfunction (17%). Fatal cases had a lower median nadir platelet count (64.5×109 cells/L vs 93.0×109 cells/L, p = 0.02), higher median peak lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level (1982.5 U/L vs 1230.0 U/L, p = 0.001), higher percentage of ARDS (94% [n = 16] vs 56% [n = 5], p = 0.034) and more frequent cardiac failure (71% [n = 12] vs 11% [n = 1], p = 0.011) than nonfatal cases. A higher proportion of patients who received antiviral drugs survived compared to untreated (67% [8/12] vs 7% [1/14], p = 0.003).Conclusions/SignificanceThe clinical course of Chinese H5N1 cases is characterized by fever and cough initially, with rapid progression to lower respiratory disease. Decreased platelet count, elevated LDH level, ARDS and cardiac failure were associated with fatal outcomes. Clinical management of H5N1 cases should be standardized in China to include early antiviral treatment for suspected H5N1 cases.
Establishing semantic correspondence is a core problem in computer vision and remains challenging due to large intra-class variations and lack of annotated data. In this paper, we aim to incorporate global semantic context in a flexible manner to overcome the limitations of prior work that relies on local semantic representations. To this end, we first propose a context-aware semantic representation that incorporates spatial layout for robust matching against local ambiguities. We then develop a novel dynamic fusion strategy based on attention mechanism to weave the advantages of both local and context features by integrating semantic cues from multiple scales. We instantiate our strategy by designing an end-to-end learnable deep network, named as Dynamic Context Correspondence Network (DCCNet). To train the network, we adopt a multi-auxiliary task loss to improve the efficiency of our weakly-supervised learning procedure. Our approach achieves superior or competitive performance over previous methods on several challenging datasets, including PF-Pascal, PF-Willow, and TSS, demonstrating its effectiveness and generality.
The outcomes and QoL of patients admitted for an acute exacerbation of COPD were poor. The major factors influencing QoL were frequency of COPD exacerbation and severity of dyspnoea. Improvement of social and medical networks (e.g. reducing the number of patients living alone and providing family doctors for patients) may reduce health care service utilization.
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