Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is an active metabolite of artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs), and it is an effective clinical drug widely used to treat malaria. Recently, the anticancer activity of DHA has attracted increasing attention. Nevertheless, there is no systematic summary on the anticancer effects of DHA. Notably, studies have shown that DHA exerts anticancer effects through various molecular mechanisms, such as inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, inhibiting tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, promoting immune function, inducing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this review, we comprehensively summarized the latest progress regarding the anticancer activities of DHA in cancer. Importantly, the underlying anticancer molecular mechanisms and pharmacological effects of DHA in vitro and in vivo are the focus of our attention. Interestingly, new methods to improve the solubility and bioavailability of DHA are discussed, which greatly enhance its anticancer efficacy. Remarkably, DHA has synergistic anti-tumor effects with a variety of clinical drugs, and preclinical and clinical studies provide stronger evidence of its anticancer potential. Moreover, this article also gives suggestions for further research on the anticancer effects of DHA. Thus, we hope to provide a strong theoretical support for DHA as an anticancer drug.
Packaging multiple drugs into a nanocarrier with rational design to achieve synergistic cancer therapy remains a challenge due to the intrinsically varied pharmacodynamics of therapeutic agents. Especially difficult is combining small-molecule drugs and macromolecular biologics. Here, we successfully graft pheophorbide A (PPA) photosensitizers on DNA backbone at predesigned phosphorothioate modification sites. The synthesized four PPA-grafted DNAs are assembled into a tetrahedron framework, which further associates with a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) linker through supramolecular self-assembly to form an siRNA and PPA copackaged nanogel. With dual therapeutic agents inside, the nanogel can photodynamically kill tumor cells and induce remarkable immunogenic cell death. Also, it simultaneously silences the PD-L1 expression of the tumor cells, which substantially promotes the antitumor immune response and leads to an enhanced antitumor efficacy in a synergistic fashion.
A facile strategy by using magnesium carbonate as the recyclable template has been developed to synthesize a variety of uniform inorganic hollow structures whose composition, size and shape can be readily modulated to generate interesting structures such as TiO(2), Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), Gd(2)O(3) and NiO microtubes and TiO(2), SiO(2) hollow microboxes.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor and regulates tumorigenesis. However, the functions of STAT3 in immune and drug response in cancer remain elusive. Hence, we aim to reveal the impact of STAT3 in immune infiltration and drug response comprehensively by bioinformatics analysis. The expression of STAT3 and its relationship with tumor stage were explored by Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER), Human Protein Altas (HPA), and UALCAN databases. The correlations between STAT3 and immune infiltration, gene markers of immune cells were analyzed by TIMER. Moreover, the association between STAT3 and drug response was evaluated by the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP). The results suggested that the mRNA transcriptional level of STAT3 was lower in tumors than normal tissues and mostly unrelated to tumor stage. Besides, the protein expression of STAT3 decreased in colorectal and renal cancer compared with normal tissues. Importantly, STAT3 was correlated with immune infiltration and particularly regulated tumor-associated macrophage (TAM), M2 macrophage, T-helper 1 (Th1), follicular helper T (Treg), and exhausted T-cells. Remarkably, STAT3 was closely correlated with the response to specified inhibitors and natural compounds in cancer. Furthermore, the association between STAT3 and drug response was highly cell line type dependent. Significantly, the study provides thorough insight that STAT3 is associated with immunosuppression, as well as drug response in clinical treatment.
NiO hierarchical structure was synthesized via a facile template-engaged solvothermal reaction of Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 ?4H 2 O and Ni(NO 3 ) 2 ?6H 2 O, followed by annealing Ni-base precursor at high temperature in air. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and N 2 adsorption-desorption. It has been demonstrated that the NiO hierarchical structure retains the morphology of the template, and possesses a high surface area (over 58 m 2 g 21 ). Moreover, the growth mechanism of Ni-base precursor has been proposed. The porous hierarchical NiO exhibited good adsorption for the removal of organic dye pollutants from water. Thus, the porous hierarchical NiO is expected to find promising applications in catalysis, energy storage and sensors.
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