BackgroundResearchers from several different countries have found the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to have good psychometric properties. However, to our knowledge, no studies on this subject have been reported in Mainland China. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese Mandarin version of the SRS when used in Mainland China.MethodsThe reliability and validity of the parent-report SRS in a sample of 749 children of 4- to 14-year-olds: 411 typically developing and 338 clinical participants (202 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) were examined.ResultsInternal consistency for total scale (0.871–0.922), test–retest reliability (0.81–0.94), and convergent validity with the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) (0.302–0.647) were satisfactory. The SRS total score discriminated between the ASD and other developmental disorders. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the SRS was predicted to accurately classify 69.2–97.2% of youth ASD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) supported a single-factor solution for the ASD subsample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) did not confirm the theoretical construct of five factors model with inadequate fit in the ASD subsample.ConclusionsOverall, our findings supported the reliability and validity of the parent-report SRS as one ASD screening instrument. In addition, we also suggest that the use of separate cut-offs for screening purposes (optimizing sensitivity) vs. clinical confirmation (optimizing specificity) should be considered.
ObjectiveWe investigated the ability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) overexpressing microRNA-21 (miR-21) to repair cardiac damage induced by anthracyclines in rats.MethodsSprague-Dawley (SD) rats of 2~3 weeks old were selected to isolate and culture BMSCs. A lentivirus harboring pLVX-miR-21 was generated and transfected into rat BMSCs. The rats were assigned into an untreated negative control group, and groups injected with adriamycin alone or with adriamycin followed by BMSCs, pLVX-BMSCs or pLVX-miR-21-BMSCs (n = 10 each). Proliferation and migration of cells were detected by cholecystokinin-8 (CCK- 8) and transwell. MiR-21 expression, mRNA expressions of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), BAX (BCL-2-associated X protein) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were tested by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was applied to detect protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and VEGF.ResultsUsing CCK- 8 and transwell assays, we found that pLVX-miR-21-BMSCs, which overexpressed miR-21, exhibited greater proliferation and migration than untransfected BMSCs or pLVX-BMSCs. Ultrasonic cardiograms and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that among the five groups, the pLVX-miR-21-BMSC group exhibited the most improved heart function and enhanced angiogenesis. Moreover, the pLVX-miR-21-BMSC group showed enhanced expression of Bcl-2, VEGF and Cx43 and reduced expression of Bax, BNP and troponin T.ConclusionThese findings suggest miR-21 overexpression enhanced the proliferation, invasiveness and differentiation of BMSCs as well as expression of key factors (Bcl-2, VEGF and Bax) essential for repairing the cardiac damage induced by anthracyclines and restoring heart function.
The human neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor (Y2R) plays essential roles in food intake, bone formation and mood regulation, and has been considered an important drug target for obesity and anxiety. However, development of drugs targeting Y2R remains challenging with no success in clinical application yet. Here, we report the crystal structure of Y2R bound to a selective antagonist JNJ-31020028 at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure reveals molecular details of the ligand-binding mode of Y2R. Combined with mutagenesis studies, the Y2R structure provides insights into key factors that define antagonistic activity of diverse antagonists. Comparison with the previously determined antagonist-bound Y1R structures identified receptor-ligand interactions that play different roles in modulating receptor activation and mediating ligand selectivity. These findings deepen our understanding about molecular mechanisms of ligand recognition and subtype specificity of NPY receptors, and would enable structure-based drug design.
Objective: The present study aimed to establish an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells in vitro and identify their biological characteristics. Methods: Cells from the AML-infiltrated skin from an M6 patient were infected with a lentivirus carrying OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC to induce iPSCs. The characteristics of the iPSCs were confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. The proliferation ability of iPSCs was detected with a CCK-8 assay. The expression of pluripotency markers was measured by immunostaining, and the expression of stem cell-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR; distortion during the induction process was detected by karyotype analysis; the differentiation potential of iPSCs was determined by embryoid body-formation and teratoma-formation assays. ALP staining confirmed that these cells exhibited positive staining and had the characteristics of iPSCs. Results: The CCK-8 assay showed that the iPSCs had the ability to proliferate. Immunostaining demonstrated that iPSC clones showed positive expression of NANOG, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. qRT-PCR results revealed that the mRNA expression of Nanog, Lin28, Cripto, FOX3, DNMT3b, DPPA2, and DPPA4 significantly increased in iPSCs. Karyotype analysis found no chromosome aberration in the iPSCs. The results of the embryoid body-formation and teratoma-formation assays indicated that the iPSCs had the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that an iPSC line derived from AML cells was successfully established.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4+ T cells, may exert inhibitory effects on alloimmune responses including acute graft‐versus‐host disease (aGVHD), and several microRNAs are implicated in the pathophysiological process of GVHD. Therefore, we aimed in the present study to characterize the functional relevance of epidermal growth factor (EGF)‐stimulated microRNA‐21 (miR‐21) in regulating bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a mouse model of aGVHD. We first isolated and cultured BMSCs and Tregs. Then, we examined effects of miR‐21 knockdown or overexpression and EGF on cell activities of BMSCs and the expression of PTEN, Foxp3, AKT phosphorylation, and extent of c‐jun phosphorylation by gain‐ and loss‐of‐function approaches. The results showed that miR‐21 promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration of BMSCs. Furthermore, miR‐21 in BMSCs‐derived exosomes inhibited PTEN, but enhanced AKT phosphorylation and Foxp3 expression in Tregs. In addition, EGF enhanced c‐jun phosphorylation to elevate the miR‐21 expression. Furthermore, EGF significantly increased the efficacy of BMSCs in a mouse model of aGVHD, manifesting in reduced IFN‐γ expression and lesser organ damage. Moreover, EGF treatment promoted the Foxp3 expression of Tregs in BMSCs‐treated aGVHD mice. Taken together, EGF induced the BMSCs‐derived exosomal miR‐21 expression, which enhanced Foxp3 expression in Tregs, thereby improving the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on aGVHD.
To address whether Curcumin has synergistic effect with cytarabine (Ara-C) in treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
A xenograft AML mouse model was established by injecting HL-60 cells into tail vein of mice to assess the function of Curcumin. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) isolated from AML mice and AML cell lines were used to examine the effect of Curcumin. Metagenomics and metabolomics were used to evaluate the alteration of intestinal microbiota and the change of metabolites in MNCs.
Curcumin treatment sensitized response to Ara-C in MNCs of AML mice, but had no direct effect on AML cell lines. Metagenomics revealed an alteration of intestinal microbiota with Curcumin treatment, which contributes to sensitized response to Ara-C. Curcumin treatment led to enhanced intestinal intact to sensitize response to Ara-C in AML mice, through reducing mucus degrading bacteria. Metabolomics demonstrated that Curcumin treatment led to decreased cholesterol in MNCs of AML mice. Further study proved that Curcumin treatment resulted in inhibition of SQLE, a key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, to increase sensitivity to Ara-C.
Curcumin sensitizes response to Ara-C through regulating microbiota, highlighting the importance of intestinal intact strengthening in chemoresistant therapy. Moreover, aiming at cholesterol synthesis is promising in AML treatment.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.