Cells maintain healthy mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria through mitophagy; defective mitophagy is linked to Parkinson's disease. Here we report that USP30, a deubiquitinase localized to mitochondria, antagonizes mitophagy driven by the ubiquitin ligase parkin (also known as PARK2) and protein kinase PINK1, which are encoded by two genes associated with Parkinson's disease. Parkin ubiquitinates and tags damaged mitochondria for clearance. Overexpression of USP30 removes ubiquitin attached by parkin onto damaged mitochondria and blocks parkin's ability to drive mitophagy, whereas reducing USP30 activity enhances mitochondrial degradation in neurons. Global ubiquitination site profiling identified multiple mitochondrial substrates oppositely regulated by parkin and USP30. Knockdown of USP30 rescues the defective mitophagy caused by pathogenic mutations in parkin and improves mitochondrial integrity in parkin- or PINK1-deficient flies. Knockdown of USP30 in dopaminergic neurons protects flies against paraquat toxicity in vivo, ameliorating defects in dopamine levels, motor function and organismal survival. Thus USP30 inhibition is potentially beneficial for Parkinson's disease by promoting mitochondrial clearance and quality control.
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although biochemical studies have shown that certain PD mutations confer elevated kinase activity in vitro on LRRK2, there are no methods available to directly monitor LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo. We demonstrate that LRRK2 autophosphorylation on Ser(1292) occurs in vivo and is enhanced by several familial PD mutations including N1437H, R1441G/C, G2019S, and I2020T. Combining two PD mutations together further increases Ser(1292) autophosphorylation. Mutation of Ser(1292) to alanine (S1292A) ameliorates the effects of LRRK2 PD mutations on neurite outgrowth in cultured rat embryonic primary neurons. Using cell-based and pharmacodynamic assays with phosphorylated Ser(1292) as the readout, we developed a brain-penetrating LRRK2 kinase inhibitor that blocks Ser(1292) autophosphorylation in vivo and attenuates the cellular consequences of LRRK2 PD mutations in vitro. These data suggest that Ser(1292) autophosphorylation may be a useful indicator of LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo and may contribute to the cellular effects of certain PD mutations.
A classification and regression tool, J. H. Friedman's Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB), is applied to predicting a compound's quantitative or categorical biological activity based on a quantitative description of the compound's molecular structure. Stochastic Gradient Boosting is a procedure for building a sequence of models, for instance regression trees (as in this paper), whose outputs are combined to form a predicted quantity, either an estimate of the biological activity, or a class label to which a molecule belongs. In particular, the SGB procedure builds a model in a stage-wise manner by fitting each tree to the gradient of a loss function: e.g., squared error for regression and binomial log-likelihood for classification. The values of the gradient are computed for each sample in the training set, but only a random sample of these gradients is used at each stage. (Friedman showed that the well-known boosting algorithm, AdaBoost of Freund and Schapire, could be considered as a particular case of SGB.) The SGB method is used to analyze 10 cheminformatics data sets, most of which are publicly available. The results show that SGB's performance is comparable to that of Random Forest, another ensemble learning method, and are generally competitive with or superior to those of other QSAR methods. The use of SGB's variable importance with partial dependence plots for model interpretation is also illustrated.
Geometric-phase metasurfaces, recently utilized for controlling wavefronts of circular polarized (CP) electromagnetic waves, are drastically limited to the cross-polarization modality. Combining geometric with propagation phase allows to further control the co-polarized output channel, nevertheless addressing only similar functionality on both co-polarized outputs for the two different CP incident beams. Here we introduce the concept of chirality-assisted phase as a degree of freedom, which could decouple the two co-polarized outputs, and thus be an alternative solution for designing arbitrary modulated-phase metasurfaces with distinct wavefront manipulation in all four CP output channels. Two metasurfaces are demonstrated with four arbitrary refraction wavefronts, and orbital angular momentum modes with four independent topological charge, showcasing complete and independent manipulation of all possible CP channels in transmission. This additional phase addressing mechanism will lead to new components, ranging from broadband achromatic devices to the multiplexing of wavefronts for application in reconfigurable-beam antenna and wireless communication systems.
Drug transporter and cytochrome P450 expression is regulated by shared nuclear receptors and, hence, an inducer should induce both, although the magnitude may differ. The objective of this study was to establish relative induction relationships between CYP3A and drug transporters (P‐glycoprotein (P‐gp), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)) or other P450s (CYP2C9 and CYP1A2) using ascending doses of the prototypical pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR) agonist, rifampin, to elicit weak, moderate, and strong PXR agonism. Healthy subjects received dabigatran etexilate, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and a midazolam/tolbutamide/caffeine cocktail before and after rifampin 2, 10, 75, or 600 mg q.d. Unlike CYP3A, only moderate induction of P‐gp, OATP, and CYP2C9 was observed and dose‐dependent induction of P‐gp, OATP, and CYP2C9 was always one drug–drug interaction category lower than observed for CYP3A, even when correcting for probe drug sensitivity. Data from this study establish proof‐of‐concept that P450 induction data can be leveraged to inform on the effect on transporters.
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in embryonic development and has been associated with cancer metastasis and drug resistance. For example, in EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), EMT has been associated with acquired resistance to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Moreover, “EGFR-addicted” cancer cell lines induced to undergo EMT become erlotinib-resistant in vitro. To identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities specifically within these mesenchymal, erlotinib-resistant cells, we performed a small molecule screen of ~200 established anti-cancer agents using the EGFR mutant NSCLC HCC827 cell line and a corresponding mesenchymal derivative line. The mesenchymal cells were more resistant to most tested agents; however, a small number of agents showed selective growth inhibitory activity against the mesenchymal cells, with the most potent being the Abl/Src inhibitor, dasatinib. Analysis of the tyrosine phospho-proteome revealed several Src/FAK pathway kinases that were differentially phosphorylated in the mesenchymal cells, and RNAi depletion of the core Src/FAK pathway components in these mesenchymal cells caused apoptosis. These findings reveal a novel role for Src/FAK pathway kinases in drug resistance and identify dasatinib as a potential therapeutic for treatment of erlotinib resistance associated with EMT.
Controlling light properties with diffractive planar elements requires full-polarization channels and accurate reconstruction of optical signal for real applications. Here, we present a general method that enables wavefront shaping with arbitrary output polarization by encoding both phase and polarization information into pixelated metasurfaces. We apply this concept to convert an input plane wave with linear polarization to a holographic image with arbitrary spatial output polarization. A vectorial ptychography technique is introduced for mapping the Jones matrix to monitor the reconstructed metasurface output field and to compute the full polarization properties of the vectorial far field patterns, confirming that pixelated interfaces can deflect vectorial images to desired directions for accurate targeting and wavefront shaping. Multiplexing pixelated deflectors that address different polarizations have been integrated into a shared aperture to display several arbitrary polarized images, leading to promising new applications in vector beam generation, full color display and augmented/ virtual reality imaging.
The first demonstration of an optofluidic metamaterial is reported where resonant properties of every individual metamolecule can be continuously tuned at will using a microfluidic system. This is called a random-access reconfigurable metamaterial, which is used to provide the first demonstration of a tunable flat lens with wavefront-reshaping capabilities.
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