Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS), a persistent organic contaminant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and humans, but few studies have assessed its effect on aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of PFOS on zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos exhibited bent spine and developmental toxicity after exposure to various PFOS concentrations (0.01-16.0 μM) from 6 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The LC50 at 120 hpf was 4.39 μM and the EC50 at 120 hpf was 2.23 μM. PFOS induced apoptosis at 24 hpf was consistently located in the brain, eye, and tail region of embryos. PFOS elevated the basal rate of swimming after 4 days of exposure, and larvae exposed to PFOS (0.5-8.0μM) for only 1 h at 6 dpf swam faster with increasing PFOS concentration. Larvae exposed to 16.0 μM PFOS for 24 h periods from 1 to 121 hpf showed the highest incidence of malformations in the 97-121 hpf window. Continuous exposure to PFOS from 1 to 121 hpf resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Our results further the understanding of the health risks of PFOS to aquatic organisms and identify additional research needed on PFOS toxicology.
The consequences of UVB and UVA irradiation on hatch rate, mortality, and malformation were studied in embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish embryos has expanded from traditional developmental models to diverse studies, including many techniques utilizing light exposure. To characterize useful indicators of photodamage, the responses and threshold limits of UV radiation as a function of embryonic stage and fish source were evaluated. Significant differences in UVB susceptibility were observed in embryos at 3, 6-7, 12, and 24 h postfertilization (hpf), with the 1000-cell stage (3 hpf) having greatest tolerance to UVB. Embryos derived from zebrafish raised in outdoor ponds were more tolerant to UVB than were embryos from laboratory-raised fish. Combinations of UVB and UVA exposure were used to confirm the presence of a competent photorepair system in zebrafish that could return otherwise malformed embryos to a normal phenotype. Overall, embryonic zebrafish had large tolerances (LD 50 of 850 J/cm 2 ) to UVA, confirming their suitability for photoactivation and photorepair studies.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 μg/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 μg/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. Environ.
Mitochondrial metabolic capacity and DNA replication have both been shown to affect oocyte quality, but it is unclear which one is more critical. In this study, immature oocytes were treated with FCCP or ddC to independently inhibit the respective mitochondrial metabolic capacity or DNA replication of oocytes during in vitro maturation. To differentiate their roles, we evaluated various parameters related to oocyte maturation (germinal vesicle break down and nuclear maturation), quality (spindle formation, chromosome alignment, and mitochondrial distribution pattern), fertilization capability, and subsequent embryo developmental competence (blastocyst formation and cell number of blastocyst). Inhibition of mitochondrial metabolic capacity with FCCP resulted in a reduced percent of oocytes with nuclear maturation; normal spindle formation and chromosome alignment; evenly distributed mitochondria; and an ability to form blastocysts. Inhibition of mtDNA replication with ddC has no detectable effect on oocyte maturation and mitochondrial distribution, although high-dose ddC increased the percent of oocytes showing abnormal spindle formation and chromosome alignment. ddC did, however, reduce blastocyst formation significantly. Neither FCCP nor ddC exposure had an effect on the rate of fertilization. These findings suggest that the effects associated with lower mitochondrial DNA copy number do not coincide with the effects seen with reduced mitochondrial metabolic activity in oocytes. Inhibiting mitochondrial metabolic activity during oocyte maturation has a negative impact on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo developmental competence. A reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number, on the other hand, mainly affects embryonic development potential, but has little effect on oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization.
Sperm cryopreservation for fishes with internal fertilization is essentially unexplored although many species of these fishes are valuable biomedical research models. To explore methods for sperm cryopreservation within the live-bearing genus Xiphophorus, this study used X. helleri to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant, osmotic pressure, cooling rate, equilibration time, and sperm-to-extender ratio. Sperm motility and survival duration after thawing showed significant differences among different cryoprotectants with the highest motility at 10 min after thawing obtained with 14% glycerol. With subsequent use of 14% glycerol as the cryoprotectant, the highest motility after thawing was observed with Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 300 mOsmol/kg. Samples cooled from 5 to −80 °C at 20 °C/min yielded the highest post-thaw motility although no significant difference was found in the first 4 h after thawing for cooling rates across the range of 20-35 °C/min. Evaluation of equilibration time revealed no significant difference between 20 min and 2 h, but the highest motility at 10 min after thawing was found with a 20-min equilibration. Dilution ratios of sperm-to-extender at 1:20, 1:60, and 1:120 showed no significant differences in motility and survival duration after thawing, but the dilution of sperm solutions with HBSS (320 mOsmol/kg) immediately after thawing reduced the decline of sperm motility, and significantly prolonged the survival duration. Based on these findings, the highest average sperm motility (77%) at 10 min after thawing was obtained when sperm were suspended in HBSS at 300 mOsmol/kg with 14% glycerol as cryoprotectant, diluted at a ratio of sperm to HBSS-glycerol of 1:20, equilibrated for 10 min, cooled at 20 °C/min from 5 to −80 °C before being plunged in liquid nitrogen, and thawed in a 40 °C water bath for 7 s. If diluted immediately after thawing, sperm frozen by the protocol above retained continuous motility after thawing for more than 8 days when stored at 4 °C. The first studies of fish sperm cryopreservation were published 50 years ago , and since then more than 200 fish species have been studied [26,39]. This research effort has yielded techniques that are being applied with varying levels of success for fishes around the world. However, most work has focused on large-bodied culture and sport fishes, such as salmon and trout of the family salmonidae , carps of the family cyprinidae , and catfishes of the families claridae, ictaluridae, pangasiidae, and siluridae . Small teleost fishes are studied much less except for the research models zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) . Published studies of sperm cryopreservation of small livebearing fish are completely lacking except for our initial research on swordtail sperm . Live-bearing fishes as a group are distinct from other fishes for many reasons, most notably for internal fertilization in which males transfer sperm in packages (spermatophores) to females which store the sp...
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants around the world. Because of large production volumes, widespread usage and persistence, PBDEs are now ubiquitous environmental pollutants detected in a wide variety of environment media and human samples and therefore pose a significant public health concern. Deca-PBDE (BDE-209) is the only commercial PBDE mixture still allowed for use at present, and has been recently detected at high levels in human samples. However, few studies explore its effect on development, reproduction or neurobehavior with animal models. In particular, studies with long-term chronic exposure at relatively low doses are lacking. In this study, we utilize the zebrafish model to explore the developmental, reproductive, and behavioral toxicities associated with long-term chronic exposure to deca-PBDE (BDE-209). Our findings revealed that long-term chronic exposure to low dose of deca-BDE (ranging from 0.001 to 1 μM) affected overall fitness (measured by condition factor), gonad development, male gamete quantity and quality in F0 parental fish. For F1 offspring without continuous exposure to BDE-209, parental BDE treatment led to delayed hatch and motor neuron development, loose muscle fiber, slow locomotion behavior in normal conditions, and hyperactivity when subjected to light-dark photoperiod stimulation. In conclusion, parental chronic low dose BDE-209 exposure not only affects F0 growth and reproduction, but also elicits neurobehavior alternations in F1 offspring.
Cardiovascular toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry and predictive screening models to identify and eliminate pharmaceuticals with the potential to cause cardiovascular toxicity in humans are urgently needed. In this study, taking advantage of the transparency of larval zebrafish, Danio rerio, we assessed cardiovascular toxicity of seven known human cardiotoxic drugs (aspirin, clomipramine hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, nimodipine, quinidine, terfenadine and verapamil hydrochloride) and two non-cardiovascular toxicity drugs (gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride) in zebrafish using six specific phenotypic endpoints: heart rate, heart rhythm, pericardial edema, circulation, hemorrhage and thrombosis. All the tested drugs were delivered into zebrafish by direct soaking and yolk sac microinjection, respectively, and cardiovascular toxicity was quantitatively or qualitatively assessed at 4 and 24 h post drug treatment. The results showed that aspirin accelerated the zebrafish heart rate (tachycardia), whereas clomipramine hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, nimodipine, quinidine, terfenadine and verapamil hydrochloride induced bradycardia. Quinidine and terfenadine also caused atrioventricular (AV) block. Nimodipine treatment resulted in atrial arrest with much slower but regular ventricular heart beating. All the tested human cardiotoxic drugs also induced pericardial edema and circulatory disturbance in zebrafish. There was no sign of cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish treated with non-cardiotoxic drugs gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride. The overall prediction success rate for cardiotoxic drugs and non-cardiotoxic drugs in zebrafish were 100% (9/9) as compared with human results, suggesting that zebrafish is an excellent animal model for rapid in vivo cardiovascular toxicity screening. The procedures we developed in this report for assessing cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish were suitable for drugs delivered by either soaking or microinjection.
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