NF-κB was discovered thirty years ago as a rapidly inducible transcription factor. Since that time it has been found to have a broad role in gene induction in diverse cellular responses, particularly throughout the immune system. Here we summarize elaborate regulatory pathways involving this transcription factor and use recent discoveries in human genetic diseases to place specific proteins within their relevant medical and biological contexts.
From an environmental perspective, lead-free SnTe would be preferable for solid-state waste heat recovery if its thermoelectric figure-of-merit could be brought close to that of the leadcontaining chalcogenides. In this work, we studied the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured SnTe with different dopants, and found indium-doped SnTe showed extraordinarily large Seebeck coefficients that cannot be explained properly by the conventional two-valence band model. We attributed this enhancement of Seebeck coefficients to resonant levels created by the indium impurities inside the valence band, supported by the firstprinciples simulations. This, together with the lower thermal conductivity resulting from the decreased grain size by ball milling and hot pressing, improved both the peak and average nondimensional figure-of-merit (ZT) significantly. A peak ZT of ∼1.1 was obtained in 0.25 atom % In-doped SnTe at about 873 K.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. Initially discovered for their ability to induce bone formation, BMPs are now known to play crucial roles in all organ systems. BMPs are important in embryogenesis and development, and also in maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. Mouse knockout models of various components of the BMP signaling pathway result in embryonic lethality or marked defects, highlighting the essential functions of BMPs. In this review, we first outline the basic aspects of BMP signaling and then focus on genetically manipulated mouse knockout models that have helped elucidate the role of BMPs in development. A significant portion of this review is devoted to the prominent human pathologies associated with dysregulated BMP signaling.
design and use of materials in the nanoscale size range for addressing
medical and health-related issues continues to receive increasing
interest. Research in nanomedicine spans a multitude of areas, including
drug delivery, vaccine development, antibacterial, diagnosis and imaging tools, wearable
devices, implants, high-throughput screening platforms, etc. using biological, nonbiological, biomimetic, or hybrid materials. Many of these
developments are starting to be translated into viable clinical products.
Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in nanomedicine
and highlight the current challenges and upcoming opportunities for
the field and translation to the clinic.
The full scale of human miRNome in specific cell or tissue, especially in cancers, remains to be determined. An in-depth analysis of miRNomes in human normal liver, hepatitis liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was carried out in this study. We found nine miRNAs accounted for ∼88.2% of the miRNome in human liver. The third most highly expressed miR-199a/b-3p is consistently decreased in HCC, and its decrement significantly correlates with poor survival of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-199a/b-3p can target tumor-promoting PAK4 to suppress HCC growth through inhibiting PAK4/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Our study provides miRNomes of human liver and HCC and contributes to better understanding of the important deregulated miRNAs in HCC and liver diseases.
Three small molecules named DR3TBDTT, DR3TBDTT-HD, and DR3TBD2T with a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit as the central building block have been designed and synthesized for solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.12% (certified 7.61%) and 8.02% under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) have been achieved for DR3TBDTT- and DR3TBDT2T-based organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with PC71BM as the acceptor, respectively. The better PCEs were achieved by improving the short-circuit current density without sacrificing the high open-circuit voltage and fill factor through the strategy of incorporating the advantages of both conventional small molecules and polymers for OPVs.
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