In recent years, FCA has received significant attention from research communities of various fields. Further, the theory of FCA is being extended into different frontiers and augmented with other knowledge representation frameworks. In this backdrop, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the necessary mathematical background for each extension of FCA like FCA with granular computing, a fuzzy setting, interval-valued, possibility theory, triadic, factor concepts and handling incomplete data. Subsequently, the paper illustrates emerging trends for each extension with applications. To this end, we summarize more than 350 recent (published after 2011) research papers indexed in Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and a few authoritative fundamental papers.
Recently, three-way concept lattice is studied to handle the uncertainty and incompleteness in the given attribute set based on acceptation, rejection, and uncertain regions. This paper aimed at analyzing the uncertainty and incompleteness in the given fuzzy attribute set characterized by truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity membership functions of a defined single-valued neutrosophic set. For this purpose a method is proposed to generate the component wise three-way formal fuzzy concept and their hierarchical order visualization in the fuzzy concept lattice using the properties of neutrosophic graph, neutrosophic lattice, and Gödel residuated lattice with an illustrative example.
Present study evaluates cardioprotective role of melatonin (Mel), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), a combination of melatonin and alpha lipoic acid (Mel + ALA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage. Female albino rats were subjected to 15-day exposure to Cd (5.12 mg/kg bw) alone or treated with ML (10 mg/kg bw) + ALA (25 mg/kg bw) simultaneously. Plasma markers of cardiac damage, cardiac free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, endogenous antioxidant status, cadmium load, metallothionein induction, and histopathology were evaluated in various experimental groups. Combination of Mel + ALA significantly prevented leakage of marker enzymes of cardiac damage, changes in cardiac free radical generation, endogenous antioxidants, antioxidant status, structural alterations and augmented the degree of metallothionein (MT) induction. The results demonstrate that ML + ALA co-administration effectively protected against Cd-induced cardiac oxidative damage.
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