in Szczecin and at a certified production farm specializing in the cultivation of highbush blueberry located in Szczecin. The effect of cultivation conditions-organic plantation in organic peat substrate (pH 3.46) and conventional plantation in mineral substrate (pH 5.32)-on the berry quality of four highbush blueberry cultivars (firmness, size, chemical composition including content of organic compounds and polyphenols) was examined. Blueberry bushes were planted at a spacing of 2.3 × 1.2 m. Bushes were planted on organic and conventional plantations, and the substrates differed in terms of mineral content. Specific environmental conditions and soil conditions (optimum pH of the substrate) resulted in larger berries on the organic plantations, and the total yield contained big berries (diameter, >12 mm; mean, 83.4%) with lower polyphenol content (287 mg 100 g -1 ). The berries of the Elliott cultivar, regardless of how the crops were grown, were the largest, characterized by the lowest content of SS (15.3%) and the highest acidity (0.98 g 100 g -1 ). They were also the most likely to shed. The Duke cultivar was most susceptible to mechanical damage (101 G mm) and was characterized by the lowest berry firmness (162 and 363 G mm) and polyphenol content (organic, 185 mg; conventional, 228 mg 100 g -1 ).
The study compares morphology of clusters and fruits, the chemical composition and changes of pulp in the process of maceration of grape cultivars ‘Mavrud’, ‘Pinot Noir’ and ‘Merlot’. The cultivar ‘Mavrud’ had biggest clusters and fruits. Its fruits were less firm but had the highest acidity while the fruits of the ‘Pinot Noir’ had the highest content of soluble solids and dry matter and the greatest firmness but the lowest acidity and content of nitrites and nitrates. The fruits of the ‘Merlot’ cultivar had the highest content of L-ascorbic acid, nitrites and nitrates. The pulp colour was largely affected by the maceration temperature. During a warm maceration, the process of pulp darkening accelerated and the red colour saturation increased, whereas cold maceration resulted in the blue colour saturation.
Colour measurement is one of the methods used to evaluate food quality. Aim of completed research was the evaluation of a fast and non-destructive method which consisted of assessing colour changes. It was used to determine the ripeness of cherries during their harvest. Additionally, the most significant parameter determining fruit ripeness was identified. Colour measurements of the Burlat cherry on the PHL A rootstocks were supposed to provide standards for practical evaluation of fruit ripeness of this species at an orchard. During the research, the measurements concerned the internal quality of the cherry fruit (firmness, extract content) and the force required to tear off the stem, depending on the size of the fruit. The extract appeared to be the most important indicator to be used for the determination of an optimum harvesting period. It was most prominently correlated with the cherry’s colour. Changes in the skin colour were the most reflected by the value of the parameter CIE a*. The coordinates CIE L* and b* are also important for the determination of fruit quality. Burlat cherries achieve their optimum harvesting ripeness if the coordinate a* is within the range 30.0 to 0.0, the coordinate b* within 10.0 to 0.0 and the coordinate L* within 30.0 to 20.0, which corresponds to the extract value of 12-20%.
In an experiment carried out in 2006-2007, influence of different fertilizers on yield and quality of cv. Kent strawberry fruit was determined. Two combinations were tested, each consisting of 3 types of fertilizers. The control plants remained unfertilized. In both combinations, two types of multi-component fertilizers were used (T-5% N, 5% P 2 O 5 , 15% K 2 O and O-10% N, 5% P 2 O 5 , 10% K 2 O) as well as one rate of ammonium nitrate to provide 50 kg N ha-1 in the first combination and 70 kg N ha-1 in the second one. The usage of multi-component fertilizers, especially O type resulted in an increase of cv. Kent strawberry yield. The fruit collected from the control plants and the ones fertilized with ammonium nitrate weighed less than berries obtained from plants fertilized with multicomponent fertilizers. The treatment with multi-component fertilizers enhanced firmness as well as calcium, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit. The berries fertilized with higher rate of T fertilizer contained more soluble solids, total sugar and reducing sugar. Neither the type of fertilizers, nor their rate affected acidity, vitamin C, total phenol and magnesium content in berries. Higher antioxidant activity towards DPPH radicals was observed in fruit obtained from plants fertilized with lower and higher rate of ammonium nitrate. The lowest nitrogen content was observed for control berries. Practically, the differences regarding nitrogen content between the fruits of the first (50 kg N ha-1) and second combination (70 kg N ha-1) were negligible. K e y w o r d s : strawberry, multi-component fertilizers, fruit quality, chemical composition. WP£YW NAWO¯ENIA NA WYSOKOOEAE I JAKOOEAE PLONU TRUSKAWEK ODMIANY KENT Abstrakt W dooewiadczeniu przeprowadzonym w latach 2006-2007 okreoelano wp³yw nawozów o zró¿nicowanym sk³adzie chemicznym na plonowanie oraz jakooeae owoców truskawki odmiany Kent. Na tle kontroli badano 2 warianty nawo¿enia mineralnego, z których ka¿dy obejmowa³ 3 kombinacje nawozowe. W obu wariantach zastosowano posypowo dwa rodzaje nawozów wielosk³adnikowych (T-5% N, 5% P 2 O 5 , 15% K 2 O oraz O-10% N, 5% P 2 O 5 , 10% K 2 O) oraz jedn¹ dawkê saletry amonowej w taki sposób, aby dostarczyae w 1. wariancie dooewiadczenia 50 kg N ha-1 , a w 2. wariancie 70 kg N ha-1. Stosowanie nawozów wielosk³adnikowych, zw³aszcza typu O, spowodowa³o wzrost plonowania truskawki odmiany Kent. Owoce z rooelin kontrolnych oraz nawo¿onych saletr¹ mia³y mniejsz¹ masê ni¿ uzyskane z zastosowaniem nawozów wielosk³adnikowych. Nawozy wielosk³adnikowe wp³y-nê³y na zwiêkszenie jêdrnooeci i zwiêkszenie koncentracji wapnia, fosforu i potasu w owocach. Owoce z rooelin nawo¿onych wy¿sz¹ dawk¹ nawozu T odznacza³y siê wiêksz¹ zawar-tooeci¹ ekstraktu, cukrów ogó³em i cukrów redukuj¹cych. Nie stwierdzono istotnego wp³ywu zastosowanego nawo¿enia na kwasowooeae owoców, zawartooeae witaminy C, polifenoli ogó³em i magnezu. Wy¿sz¹ aktywnooeci¹ przeciwutleniaj¹c¹ wobec rodników DPPH odznacza³y siê owoce pochodz¹ce z rooelin nawo¿onych ni¿sz¹ i wy¿sz¹ dawk¹...
In 2004-2006, an experiment was established at the Experimental Station Rajkowo belonging to the Agricultural University (West Pomeranian University of Technology) in Szczecin. High blueberry bushes were planted in an alkaline reaction (pH 7.1) heavy soil using three different substrates. The bushes were planted in trenches filled with peat, cocoa husk and sawdust. The fertilization of the plants was limited to a sole nitrogen supply (30 kg N ha -1 ), because chemical analyses of both the soil and the substrates showed high and/or moderate content of other nutrients. In order to decrease cocoa husk reaction and to maintain the reaction of peat and sawdust, the bushes were irrigated with H 2 SO 4 acidified water up to pH 2.5-3.5.The bed prepared of cocoa husk was characterized by the highest N (23.8 mg 100 g -1 ), Zn content (51.6 mg kg -1 ), and pH (5.0). On the other hand, sawdust substrate had the lowest salinity (0.35 g NaCl kg -1 ). Sawdust substrate showed the highest level of Mn (56.5 mg kg -1 ) and Cu (7.4 mg kg -1 ) and the lowest of Ca (83 mg 100 g -1 ), whereas, peat substrate showed the highest salinity (0.87 g NaCl kg -1 ) and the lowest pH (3.8). The usage of cocoa husk substrate resulted in the highest content of N (23.6), K (6.9 g kg -1 ) and Mn (104.5 mg kg -1 ) in cv. Sierra blueberry leaves as well as N (16.0) and K (6.5 g kg -1 ) in berries. The plants grown in sawdust substrate showed the highest level of Ca (1.75 g kg -1 ), Cu (3.2) and Zn (12.4 mg kg -1 ), in the leaves as well as S (1.7) and Cu (3.5 mg kg -1 ) in berries. RÓ¯NICE W SK£ADZIE CHEMICZNYM LIOECI I OWOCÓW BORÓWKI WYSOKIEJ W ZALE¯NOOECI OD RODZAJU POD£O¯A ZASTOSOWANEGO DO UPRAWYAbstrakt W latach 2004-2006, w Sadowniczej Stacji Badawczej Katedry Sadownictwa Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie (obecnie Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny), posadzono krzewy borówki wysokiej na glebie zwiêz³ej o odczynie zasadowym (pH 7,1) z zastosowaniem trzech ró¿nych rodzajów pod³o¿a. Krzewy posadzono w rowy wype³nione torfem, przekompostowan¹ ³usk¹ kakaow¹ oraz trocinami z drzew iglasto-lioeciastych. Nawo¿enie rooelin ograniczono do azotu (saletra amonowa 30 kg N ha -1 ), z powodu wysokiej lub/i oeredniej zawartooeci pozosta³ych sk³adników pokarmowych w glebie oraz pod³o¿ach. W celu ob-ni¿enia (³uska kakaowa) lub utrzymania niskiego odczynu pod³o¿a (torf, trociny) w czasie okresu wegetacji krzewy nawadniano wod¹ zakwaszan¹ H 2 SO 4 do odczynu 2,3-3,9.Pod³o¿e przygotowane z ³uski kakaowej mia³o najwy¿sz¹ zawartooeae azotu (23,8 mg 100 g -1 ), cynku (51,6 mg kg -1 ) oraz najwy¿sze pH (5.0), ponadto zawiera³o najmniej soli (0,35 g NaCl kg -1 ). Pod³o¿e przygotowane z trocin zawiera³o najwiêcej manganu (56,5 mg kg -1 ) i miedzi (7,4 mg kg -1 ) oraz najmniej wapnia (83 mg 100 g -1 ), natomiast by³o najbardziej zasolone (0,87 g NaCl kg -1 ) i mia³o najni¿szy odczyn (3,8). Krzewy odmiany Sierra posadzone w ³usce kakaowej zawiera³y najwiêcej azotu (23,6), potasu (6,9 g kg -1 ) i manganu (104,5 mg kg -1 ) w lioeciach oraz azotu (16,0) i potasu (6.5 g...
Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours) and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage) on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight loss.After six weeks of storage, it was found that the quality of fruit had declined. In comparison with fresh fruit, the harvest was found to have lost weight and darkened in colour. In addition, a decrease in firmness and the content of ascorbic acid and polyphenolic compounds was also observed. The fruits that were stored in a cold room with a controlled atmosphere and rapidly chilled immediately after harvest were the least affected. In addition, the research showed that there was a high correlation between the anthocyanin index and the polyphenol content in the fruits. To maintain the high quality of the fruit, the fruit must be very rapidly cooled soon after harvest and stored under optimal conditions -a cold room with a controlled atmosphere.
Maturing sweet cherry fruits are exposed to damage caused by birds. In order to repel birds from orchards, it is increasingly common to use repellents based on plant extracts and compounds that undergo complete biodegradation. One such compound is methyl anthranilate (2-aminobenzoic acid methyl ester), which has an irritating effect on birds’ senses of taste and smell. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of methyl anthranilate-based repellent (commercial name: Goose Chase/Fruit Shield) on the chemical composition and selected physiological parameters of sweet cherry cv. ‘Burlat’. The repellent containing methyl anthranilate (26.4%) was applied in the form of a foliar spray seven days prior to fruit harvest at a 1% concentration (500 dm3∙ha−1 of working liquid). In the study, methyl anthranilate-based repellent was found to have no influence on the chemical composition of fruits and leaves or the selected physiological parameters of sweet cherry cv. ‘Burlat’. Moreover, the use of methyl anthranilate did not affect the cracking susceptibility of sweet cherry fruits. This compound may constitute an interesting alternative to support sweet cherry orchard protection against birds and in organic cultures.
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