The alteration of age‐related molecules in the bone marrow microenvironment is one of the driving forces in osteoporosis. These molecules inhibit bone formation and promote bone resorption by regulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, contributing to age‐related bone loss. Here, we observed that the level of microRNA‐31a‐5p (miR‐31a‐5p) was significantly increased in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from aged rats, and these BMSCs demonstrated increased adipogenesis and aging phenotypes as well as decreased osteogenesis and stemness. We used the gain‐of‐function and knockdown approach to delineate the roles of miR‐31a‐5p in osteogenic differentiation by assessing the decrease of special AT‐rich sequence‐binding protein 2 (SATB2) levels and the aging of BMSCs by regulating the decline of E2F2 and recruiting senescence‐associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). Notably, expression of miR‐31a‐5p, which promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, was markedly higher in BMSCs‐derived exosomes from aged rats compared to those from young rats, and suppression of exosomal miR‐31a‐5p inhibited the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, as shown by elevated RhoA activity. Moreover, using antagomiR‐31a‐5p, we observed that, in the bone marrow microenvironment, inhibition of miR‐31a‐5p prevented bone loss and decreased the osteoclastic activity of aged rats. Collectively, our results reveal that miR‐31a‐5p acts as a key modulator in the age‐related bone marrow microenvironment by influencing osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation and that it may be a potential therapeutic target for age‐related osteoporosis.
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is characterized by the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) mutation, which results in delayed tooth eruption due to disturbed functions of dental follicle. Accumulating evidence has revealed a key regulatory circuit, including RUNX2, miR-31, and special AT-rich binding protein 2 (SATB2) acting in concert in mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis and functions. However, whether such a regulatory loop works in dental follicle cells (DFCs) remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the roles of RUNX2-miR-31-SATB2 in DFCs from patients with CCD (DFCs-CCD) to advance our understanding regarding physical tooth eruption. We identified a novel mutation on exon 5 (c.634T>G, p.T212P) in RUNX2 via exome sequencing in the CCD patient with typical clinical presentations. Compared with DFCs from healthy donors, DFCs-CCD displayed significantly lower osteogenic, osteoclast-inductive, and matrix-degrading capacities and had lower RUNX2 (a transcriptional inhibitor of miR-31), higher miR-31, and downregulated SATB2. Lower ratios of RANKL/OPG and RANKL/RANK, as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), would lead to inactivation of osteoclasts and suppression of bone matrix remodeling in DFCs-CCD. Furthermore, the roles of the RUNX2-miR-31-SATB2 loop in DFCs-CCD were revealed by endogenous miR-31 knockdown, which resulted in increased SATB2 and RUNX2, as well as osteoclast-inductive and matrix degradation capacities. Conversely, SATB2, RUNX2, MMP9, MMP2, and osteoclast-inductive factors expression declined upon ectopic miR-31 overexpression in normal DFCs. Importantly, neonatal mice with in vivo siRUNX2 delivery exhibited less activated osteoclasts around dental follicles and delayed tooth eruption. Together, these results suggest that RUNX2 mutation/haploinsufficiency disturbs osteoclast-inductive signaling in DFCs, which may be responsible for delayed tooth eruption in CCD patients. Manipulation of the RUNX2-miR-31-SATB2 loop may be a potential way to facilitate tooth eruption in CCD patients.
Bisphosphonate‐related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a detrimental side effect of the long‐term administration of bisphosphonates. Although macrophages were reported to be an important mediator of BRONJ, the detailed potential mechanism of BRONJ remains unclear. Here, we reported an elevated TLR‐4 expression in macrophages under action of zoledronic acid (ZA), resulting in enhanced M1 macrophage polarization and decreased M2 macrophage polarization both in vitro and in vivo. After inhibiting the TLR‐4 signaling pathway, the activation of the TLR‐4/NF‐κB signaling pathway and the induction of NF‐κB nuclear translocation and production of proinflammatory cytokines by ZA were suppressed in macrophages, thereby inhibiting M1 macrophage polarization. By utilizing the TLR‐4−/− mice, development of BRONJ was markedly ameliorated, and M1 macrophages were significantly attenuated in the extraction socket tissues in the TLR‐4−/− mice. Importantly, the systemic administration of the TLR‐4 inhibitor TAK‐242 improved the wound healing of the extraction socket and decreased the incidence rate of BRONJ. Taken together, our findings suggest that TLR‐4‐mediated macrophage polarization participates in the pathogenesis of BRONJ in mice, and TLR‐4 may be a potential target for the prevention and therapeutic treatment of BRONJ.—Zhu, W., Xu, R., Du, J., Fu, Y., Li, S., Zhang, P., Liu, L., Jiang, H. Zoledronic acid promotes TLR‐4‐mediated M1 macrophage polarization in bisphosphonate‐related osteonecrosis of the jaw. FASEB J. 33, 5208–5219 (2019). http://www.fasebj.org
BackgroundHyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion.MethodsHAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we used a conditioned culture medium model to evaluate the effects of HAS2 from CAFs on the invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the oral cancer cells Cal27. Finally, we compared the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) between CAFs and NF, and between CAFs with or without HAS2 knockdown using an antibody array and western blotting.ResultsCAFs expressed higher levels of HAS2 than the paired NFs. HAS2 expression was consistent with α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of OSCC, and these were significantly correlated advanced clinical stages and cervical lymph node metastasis. Knocking down HAS2 with a specific siRNA or treatment with a HAS inhibitor markedly attenuated CAF-induced invasion and EMT of Cal27 cells. Higher MMP1 and lower TIMP1 levels were detected in the supernatants of CAFs relative to NFs. Knocking down HAS2 could decrease the expression of MMP1 and increase that of TIMP1 in CAFs.ConclusionsHAS2 is one of the key regulators responsible for CAF-mediated OSCC progression and acts by modulating the balance of MMP1 and TIMP1.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-016-0458-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The dysfunction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may be a core factor in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we delineated the critical role of insulin impeding osteogenesis of BMSCs in T2DM. Compared with BMSCs from healthy people (H-BMSCs), BMSCs from T2DM patient (DM-BMSCs) showed decreased osteogenic differentiation and autophagy level, and increased senescent phenotype. H-BMSCs incubated in hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions similarly showed these phenotypes of DM-BMSCs. Notably, enhanced TGF-β1 expression was detected not only in DM-BMSCs and high-glucose and insulin-treated H-BMSCs, but also in bone callus of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling not only enhanced osteogenic differentiation and autophagy level of DM-BMSCs, but also delayed senescence of DM-BMSCs, as well as promoted mandible defect healing of diabetic rats. Finally, we further verified that it was TGF-β receptor II (TβRII), not TβRI, markedly increased in both DM-BMSCs and insulintreated H-BMSCs. Our data revealed that insulin impeded osteogenesis of BMSCs by inhibiting autophagy and promoting premature senescence, which it should be responsible for T2DM-induced bone loss, at least in part. These findings suggest that inhibiting TGF-β1 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for T2DM associated bone disorders.
Despite therapeutic advancements, there has been little improvement in the survival status of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to be dysregulated in several cancer types. However, the roles of HOTAIR in OSCC remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the association of HOTAIR expression with clinicopathological features in OSCC patients and the crucial roles of HOTAIR in the modulation of tumor progression. Our results showed that HOTAIR was highly expressed both in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines compared with corresponding normal oral mucosa tissues and human oral keratinocytes. Its overexpression was positively correlated with TNM (tumor‐node‐metastases) stage, histological grade, and regional lymph node metastasis. The knockdown of HOTAIR by short hairpin RNA significantly decreased the migration, invasion, and epithelial‐mesenchymal transition of OSCC cells in vitro. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between HOTAIR and microRNA‐326 expression in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines. Luciferase reporter and loss‐of‐function assays revealed that HOTAIR acted as a competitive endogenous RNA effectively sponging miR‐326, thereby regulating the derepression of metastasis‐associated gene 2 (MTA2). Finally, the expression and clinical significance of MTA2 were analyzed in another cohort of OSCC tissue samples. High MTA2 expression was significantly correlated with clinicopathological features of advanced OSCC and poor prognosis for patients with OSCC. Collectively, HOTAIR overexpression promoted the progression of OSCC. The HOTAIR–miR‐326‐MTA2 axis may contribute to a better understanding of OSCC pathogenesis and be a potential therapeutic target for OSCC.
Craniofacial bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) display some site-specific properties that differ from those of BMSCs derived from the trunk and appendicular skeleton, but the characteristics of craniofacial BMSCs and the mechanisms that underlie their properties are not completely understood. Previous studies indicated that special AT-rich binding protein 2 (SATB2) may be a potential regulator of craniofacial skeletal patterning and site-specific osteogenic capacity. Here, we investigated the stemness, autophagy, and anti-aging capacity of mandible-derived BMSCs (M-BMSCs) and tibia-derived BMSCs (T-BMSCs) and explored the role of SATB2 in regulating these properties. M-BMSCs not only possessed stronger expression of SATB2 and stemness markers (pluripotency genes, such as Nanog, OCT-4, Sox2, and Nestin) but also exhibited stronger autophagy and anti-aging capacities under normal or hypoxia/serum deprivation conditions compared to T-BMSCs. Exogenous expression of SATB2 in T-BMSCs significantly enhanced the expression of pluripotency genes as well as autophagy and anti-aging capacity. Moreover, SATB2 markedly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro, and promoted bone defect regeneration and the survival of BMSCs that were transplanted into mandibles with critical size defects. Mechanistically, SATB2 upregulates pluripotency genes and autophagy-related genes, which in turn activate the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that site-specific BMSCs have distinct biological properties and suggest that SATB2 plays a potential role in regulating the stemness, autophagy, and anti-aging properties of craniofacial BMSCs. The application of SATB2 to manipulate stem cells for the reconstruction of bone defects might represent a new approach.
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