The aim of this study was twofold: to provide a quantitative analysis of corner kicks during the 2006 World Cup and to examine the effect of match status on corner kicks. Through the elaboration of a category system and following an observational methodology, we performed an analysis of all corner kicks (n 0 653) in the 64 matches in the 2006 World Cup held in Germany. Matches were divided into sections according to evolving match status (whether the team was winning, n 0 144; losing, n 0 171; or drawing, n 0 338). Using an observational methodology the following performance indicators were analysed: type of corner kick, scoring area, effectiveness, subsequent play, part of the body used to shoot, goal zone, number of players defending the goalposts, and defence tactics. The results obtained showed that: a) in relation to kick modality, teams perform more short corners and take more short kicks and outswing corner kicks when winning. On the other hand, teams perform more outstep and inswing corner kicks when drawing and losing; b) In relation to the scoring area, teams perform more shots that head toward the semicircle placed by the penalty area or do not use the centre when winning. However, teams head their s'hots toward the first and the second goalpost when drawing and losing; c) In relation to defence, when teams that are winning perform the corner kick, the defending teams tend to have fewer players defending the goal line; d) No significant statistical association was observed for the following performance indicators: effectiveness, subsequent play, part of the body used to shoot, goal zone, and defensive system.
BackgroundMuscle flexibility is a main component of health-related fitness and one of the basic components of fitness for the performance in some sports. Sport and health professionals require the flexibility profile of soccer to define quantitative aims in the training of flexibility. The aim of this study was to identify age-related differences in lower extremity flexibility in youth soccer players.MethodsSeventy-two young male soccer players (age: 13.0 ± 3.1 y; body mass: 50.5 ± 15.3 kg; stature 158.2 ± 16.8 cm; BMI: 19.6 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed this study. Measures of eleven passive hip (hip extension (HE), hip adduction with hip flexed 90°(HAD-HF90°), hip flexion with knee flexed (HF-KF) and extended (HF-KE), hip abduction with hip neutral (HAB) and hip flexed 90°(HAB-HF90°), hip external (HER) and internal (HIR) rotation), knee (knee flexion (KF)) and ankle dorsiflexion (ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexed (ADF-KF) and extended (ADF-KE)) ranges of motion (ROM) were taken. Descriptive statistics were calculated for hip, knee and ankle ROM measured separately by leg (dominant and non-dominant) and age-group (U10, U12, U14, U16 and U19). The data was analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the interaction of 11 ROM in the different players’ age-group.ResultsGenerally, U10 and/or U12 soccer players obtain the highest mean value in almost all ROM evaluated (U10: HAD-HF [39.6° ± 4.3°], ADF-KE [32.3° ± 4.1°], HER [63.5° ± 5.6°] and HAB-HF90°[64.1° ± 7.5°]; U12: HE [17.7° ± 6.2°], HAB [35.6° ± 3.0], HIR [60.8° ± 4.7°] and KF [133.8° ± 7.1°]). Nonetheless, significant differences between the players’ age-groups are just found in HAD-HF90°(p = .042; ES = .136), HAB (p = .001; ES = .252), HIR (p = .001; ES = .251), HER (p < .001; ES = .321) and HAB-HF90°(p < .001; ES = .376) ROM, showing a progressive and irregular decrease in these ROM until the U19 team.ConclusionThe findings of this study reinforce the necessity of prescribing exercises aimed at improving HAD-HF90° ROM in U16, HAB ROM in U14, HIR ROM in U16 and U19, HER ROM in U12 and U19, and HAB-HF90° ROM in U16 and U19 players within everyday soccer training routines.
Context: Previous research has analyzed how the sport influences sagittal spinal curvatures in young athletes and has found that spinal curves may be modified as a consequence of repeated movement patterns and postures of each discipline. Objective: To analyze sagittal spinal alignment by equestrian discipline and its relation to training load, and to describe “sagittal integrative morphotype” in young riders. Design: Observational descriptive study. Setting: Training room. Participants: A total of 23 riders (aged 9–17 y)—13 dressage riders (3 males and 10 females) and 10 show jumping riders (5 males and 5 females)—participated voluntarily. Main Outcome Measures: Mann–Whitney U test was applied to determine differences between riders’ characteristics (gender, discipline, and training load) and spine variables. Results: According to normality ranges for spinal curves, females showed an increase for lumbar curvature in standing position. It was found that show jumping riders manifested an increment in thoracic and lumbar curves while standing and an increase in the thoracic curvature in slump sitting. Statistically significant differences were found when lumbar curvature, “sit and reach” distance, and lumbo-horizontal angle in flexion were analyzed by gender in “sit and reach” test. No statistical significant differences were found when spinal curves in each position were analyzed depending on the training load. With regard to “sagittal integrative morphotype,” all riders presented a hyperkyphotic dorsal morphotype no matter what their discipline. As for the lumbar curve, dressage and show jumping riders presented a functional hyperkyphotic morphotype. Conclusions: It is important to note that many riders presented a sagittal imbalance for the thoracic and lumbar curves. Therefore, as the sagittal spinal misalignments persist and worsen over time, exercise programs to prevent or rehabilitate these imbalances in young riders will be needed. The “sagittal integrative morphotype” assessment is an essential tool in order to identify the spinal misalignment.
Background: Football is the most popular sport among women; however, little is known about the injury profile in this population. This information would help design tailored injury risk mitigation strategies that may make football safer for women.Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological data of injuries in women´s football.Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed up to January 2020 in PubMed, Web of Science, Sport discus and the Cochrane Library databases. Twenty-one studies reporting the incidence of injuries in women football were analysed. Two reviewers independently extracted data (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] for inter-reviewer reliability = 0.87) and assessed study quality using the STROBE statement, GRADE approach, Newcastle Ottawa Scale and Downs and Black assessment tools. Studies were combined in pooled analyses (injury incidence and injury proportion) using a Poisson random effects regression model. Results:The overall incidence of injuries in female football players was 6.1 injuries/1000 hours of exposure.Match injury incidence (19.2 injuries/1000 hours of exposure) was almost six times higher than training injury incidence rate (3.5 injuries/1000 hours of exposure). Lower extremity injuries had the highest incidence rates (4.8 injuries/1000 hours of exposure). The most common types of injuries were muscle/tendon (1.8 injuries/1000 hours of exposure) and joint (non-bone) and ligament (1.5 injuries/1000 hours of exposure), which were frequently associated with traumatic incidents. Slight/minimal injuries (1-3 days of time loss) were the most common. The incidence rate of injuries during matches in the top 5 world ranking leagues was higher than the rest of the leagues (19.3 vs 10.7 injuries/1000 hours of exposure, respectively). The weighted injury proportion was 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-1.7) whereby on average players sustained more than one injury per season. Conclusions:Female football players are exposed to a substantial risk of sustaining injuries, especially during matches that require the highest level of performance. In order to markedly reduce overall injury burden, efforts should focus on introducing and evaluating preventative measures that target match specific dynamics in order to make football players more capable of responding to the challenges that they have to deal with during match play.Registration: This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (ID = CRD42019118152). Key pointsa) Match injury incidence is almost 6 times higher than the training injury incidence rate.-I b) Lower extremity is the anatomical region more frequently injured and the most common types of injuries are muscle/ tendon strains and joint (non-bone) and ligament. c) Although slight/minimal injuries are the most common, the number of severe injuries is high. d) Match injury incidence rates in the top-5 world ranking leagues was nearly t...
Background Physiological sagittal spinal curvatures play an important role in health and performance in sports. For that reason, several scientific studies have assessed spinal morphology in young athletes. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed the implications of Inline Hockey (IH) practice on sagittal integrative spinal morphotype in adolescent players. Objectives The aims of the present study were to describe habitual sagittal spinal posture in young federated IH players and its relationship with training load and to determine the sagittal integrative spinal morphotype in these players. Methods An observational analysis was developed to describe the sagittal spinal morphotype in young federated IH players. A total of 74 IH players from the Technification Plan organized by the Skating Federation of the Valencian Community (aged from 8 to 15 years) participated in the study. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures of the spine were measured in a relaxed standing position (SP), in a slump sitting position (SSP) and in maximum flexion of the trunk (MFT) to determine the “Sagittal Integrative Morphotype” of all players. An unilevel inclinometer was used to quantify the sagittal spinal curvatures. The Hip Joint Angle test was used to quantify the Lumbo-Horizontal angle in flexion (L-H fx) of all participants with a goniometer. Results When thoracic curvature was analyzed according to normality references, it was found that 64.9% of IH players had thoracic hyperkyphosis in a SSP, while 60.8% and 74.3% of players were classified as normal in a SP and in MFT, respectively. As for the lumbar curve, 89.2% in a SP and 55.4% in MFT were normal, whereas 68.9% of IH players presented lumbar hyperkyphosis in a SSP. Regarding the “Sagittal Integrative Morphotype,” only 17.6% of players were classified as “Normal” in the three measured positions for the thoracic curve, while 37.8% had “Thoracic Hyperkyphosis” and 41.8% presented “Functional Thoracic Hyperkyphosis.” As for the “Sagittal Integrative Lumbar Morphotype,” only 23% of athletes had a normal curve in the three positions, whereas 66.2% presented “Functional Lumbar Hyperkyphosis.” When the L-H fx was evaluated, the results showed that only 16.2% of the athletes were classified as normal. Conclusions Federative IH practice seems to cause specific adaptations in spinal sagittal morphotype. Taking into account the “Sagittal Integrative Morphotype” only 17.6% IH players presented “Normal Morphotype” with a normal thoracic kyphosis in the three measured positions, while only 23% IH players presented “Normal Morphotype” with a normal lumbar curvature in the three assessed positions. Furthermore, only 16.2% of IH players showed normal pelvic tilt. Exercise programs to prevent or rehabilitate these imbalances in young IH players are needed.
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