Please cite this article as: Lamb, Peter F., Stöckl, Michael, On the use of continuous relative phase: Review of current approaches and outline for a new standard, Clinical Biomechanics (2014Biomechanics ( ), doi: 10.1016Biomechanics ( /j.clinbiomech.2014 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
A C C E P T E D M A N U S C R I P T ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
AbstractIn this paper we review applications of continuous relative phase and commonly
Elastic knee sleeves are often worn following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) but their effects on movement patterns are unclear.
To determine the immediate and six-week effects of wearing a knee sleeve on biomechanics of the knee during a step-down hop task.
Using a cross-over design, we estimated sagittal plane knee kinematics and kinetics and stance duration during a step-down hop for 31 participants (age 26.0 [SD 6.6] years, 15 women) after ACLR (median 16 months post-surgery) with and without wearing a knee sleeve. In a subsequent randomised clinical trial, participants in the ‘Sleeve Group’ (n = 9) then wore the sleeve for 6 weeks at least 1 h daily, while a ‘Control Group’ (n = 9) did not wear the sleeve. We used statistical parametric mapping to compare (1) knee flexion/extension angle and external flexion/extension moment trajectories between three conditions at baseline (uninjured side, unsleeved injured side and sleeved injured side); (2) within-participant changes for knee flexion angles and external flexion/extension moment trajectories from baseline to follow-up between groups. We compared discrete flexion angles and moments, and stance duration between conditions and between groups.
Without sleeves, knee flexion was lower for the injured than the uninjured sides during mid-stance phase. When wearing the sleeve on the injured side, knee flexion increased during the loading phase of the stance phase. Discrete initial and peak knee flexion angles increased by (mean difference, 95% CIs) 2.7° (1.3, 4.1) and 3.0° (1.2, 4.9), respectively, when wearing the knee sleeve. Knee external flexion moments for the unsleeved injured sides were lower than the uninjured sides for 80% of stance phase, with no change when sleeved. The groups differenced for within-group changes in knee flexion trajectories at follow-up. Knee flexion angles increased for the Control group only. Stance duration decreased by 22% for the Sleeve group from baseline to follow-up (-89 ms; -153, -24) but not for the Controls.
Application of knee sleeves following ACLR is associated with improved knee flexion angles during hop landing training. Longer term (daily) knee sleeve application may help improve hop stance duration, potentially indicating improved hop performance.
The trial was prospectively registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12618001083280, 28/06/2018. ANZCTR
The advent of sports technology has led to large, high-dimensional, performance data sets, which pose decision-making challenges for coaches and performance analysts. If large data sets are managed poorly inaccurate and biased decision-making may actually be enabled. This paper outlines a process for capturing, organising, and analysing a large performance data set in professional netball. 250 ANZ Championship matches, from the 2012-2015 seasons, where analysed. Self-organising maps and a k-means clustering algorithm were used to describe seven games-styles, which were used in a case study to devise a strategy for an upcoming opponent. The team implemented a centre-pass (CP) defence strategy based on the opponent's previous successful and unsuccessful performances. This strategy involved allowing the oppositions Wing-attack to receive the CP while allowing their Goal-attack to take the second pass. The strategy was monitored live by the coaches on a tablet computer via a custom-built dashboard, which tracks each component of the strategy. The process provides an alternative to use of conventional performance indicators and demonstrates a method for handling large high-dimensional performance data sets. Further work is needed to identify an ecologically valid method for variable selection.
A surgical sciences e-learning program designed to support academic development of trainees in the early years of surgical training was associated with improved success in surgical trainees' professional examination, positive student feedback, and significant academic attainment.
Pelvis-thorax coordination has been recognised to be associated with swing speed. Increasing angular separation between the pelvis and thorax has been thought to initiate the stretch shortening cycle and lead to increased clubhead speed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pelvis-thorax coupling played a significant role in regulating clubhead speed, in a group of low-handicap golfers (mean handicap = 4.1). Sixteen participants played shots to target distances determined based on their typical 5- and 6-iron shot distances. Half the difference between median 5- and 6-iron distance for each participant was used to create three swing effort conditions: "minus", "norm", and "plus". Ten shots were played under each swing effort condition using both the 5-iron and 6-iron, resulting in six shot categories and 60 shots per participant. No significant differences were found for X-factor for club or swing effort. X-factor stretch showed significant differences for club and swing effort. Continuous relative phase (CRP) results mainly showed evidence of the stretch shortening cycle in the downswing and that it was more pronounced late in the downswing as swing effort increased. Substantial inter-individual CRP variability demonstrated the need for individual analyses when investigating coordination in the golf swing.
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