Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings provide a valuable, noninvasive method for measuring human brain activity. This protocol modi es our general protocol for EEG recording (Farrens et al., 2019) for use during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was created with the help of numerous experts, and it speci es a clear set of steps for interacting with research participants, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting equipment, all with the goal of reducing the COVID-19 risks for both laboratory personnel and participants. It focuses on the use of EEG in relatively simple research studies of adults who can easily understand and follow instructions, yet can be readily adapted for studies using other types of EEG experiments or other participant populations.
Interindividual clinical variability in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is immense. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia had neutralizing IgG auto-Abs against IFN-ω (13 patients), the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or both (52), at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1,227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 were men. A B cell auto-immune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity underlies life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.
Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the impact of blood glucose control on the degree of medical interventions required and on all-cause mortality of patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D remains unclear. Here, Zhu et al. report that among $7,300 individuals with COVID-19 (among which nearly 1,000 had T2D) in Hubei Province, China, those with T2D had significantly increased medical interventions and mortality risk. But among the patients with T2D, those with well-controlled blood glucose regulation (upper limit % 10 mmol/L) fared much better than those with poorly controlled blood glucose (upper limit > 10 mmol/L). These findings provide clinical evidence correlating more proper blood glucose control with improved outcomes in patients with COVID-19.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of porous materials with potential applications in gas storage, separations, catalysis, and chemical sensing. Despite numerous advantages, applications of many MOFs are ultimately limited by their stability under harsh conditions. Herein, the recent advances in the field of stable MOFs, covering the fundamental mechanisms of MOF stability, design, and synthesis of stable MOF architectures, and their latest applications are reviewed. First, key factors that affect MOF stability under certain chemical environments are introduced to guide the design of robust structures. This is followed by a short review of synthetic strategies of stable MOFs including modulated synthesis and postsynthetic modifications. Based on the fundamentals of MOF stability, stable MOFs are classified into two categories: high-valency metal-carboxylate frameworks and low-valency metal-azolate frameworks. Along this line, some representative stable MOFs are introduced, their structures are described, and their properties are briefly discussed. The expanded applications of stable MOFs in Lewis/Brønsted acid catalysis, redox catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, gas storage, and sensing are highlighted. Overall, this review is expected to guide the design of stable MOFs by providing insights into existing structures, which could lead to the discovery and development of more advanced functional materials.
Rationale: Use of ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. Objective: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and hospitalized due to COVID-19. Methods and Results: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range, 55–68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range 57–69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to 9 hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.19–0.92]; P =0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15–0.89]; P =0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12–0.70]; P =0.01) in patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension. Conclusions: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn’s disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
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We conducted a combined genome-wide association (GWAS) analysis of 7,481 individuals affected with bipolar disorder and 9,250 control individuals within the Psychiatric Genomewide Association Study Consortium Bipolar Disorder group (PGC-BD). We performed a replication study in which we tested 34 independent SNPs in 4,493 independent bipolar disorder cases and 42,542 independent controls and found strong evidence for replication. In the replication sample, 18 of 34 SNPs had P value < 0.05, and 31 of 34 SNPs had signals with the same direction of effect (P = 3.8 × 10−7). In the combined analysis of all 63,766 subjects (11,974 cases and 51,792 controls), genome-wide significant evidence for association was confirmed for CACNA1C and found for a novel gene ODZ4. In a combined analysis of non-overlapping schizophrenia and bipolar GWAS samples we observed strong evidence for association with SNPs in CACNA1C and in the region of NEK4/ITIH1,3,4. Pathway analysis identified a pathway comprised of subunits of calcium channels enriched in the bipolar disorder association intervals. The strength of the replication data implies that increasing samples sizes in bipolar disorder will confirm many additional loci.
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