Abstract-This paper reviews a template for dynamical climbing originating in biology, explores its stability properties in a numerical model, and presents empirical data from a physical prototype as evidence of the feasibility of adapting the dynamics of the template to robot that runs vertically upward.The recently proposed pendulous climbing model abstracts remarkable similarities in dynamic wall scaling behavior exhibited by radically different animal species. The present paper's first contribution summarizes a numerical study of this model to hypothesize that these animals' apparently wasteful commitments to lateral oscillations may be justified by a significant gain in the dynamical stability and, hence, the robustness of their resulting climbing capability. The paper's second contribution documents the design and offers preliminary empirical data arising from a physical instantiation of this model. Notwithstanding the substantial differences between the proposed bio-inspired template and this physical manifestation, initial data suggest the mechanical climber may be capable of reproducing both the motions and ground reaction forces characteristic of dynamical climbing animals. Even without proper tuning, the robot's steady state trajectories manifest a substantial exchange of kinetic and potential energy, resulting in vertical speeds of 0.30 m/s (0.75 bl/s) and claiming its place as the first bio-inspired dynamical legged climbing platform.
We have successfully synthesized vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Since no metal catalysts are used in this work, the growth process of ZnO nanotube arrays does not follow a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism but a self-catalyzed growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction results show that the nanotubes have ZnO hexagonal wurizite structures and only the ZnO (0002) peak can be seen. The rocking curve also shows a full width at half-maximum value of similar to 1625 arc second. A 6-fold symmetry in phi-scan data is also observed, indicating in-plane alignment of ZnO nanotube arrays. Room temperature photoluminescence results present a high optical quality and nearly defect-free crystal structure of ZnO nanotube at-rays. Moreover, the high near-band edge emission to deep level emission intensity ratio (I(NBE)/I(DLE)) of 2050 is obtained
Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. To develop a smartphone use/non-use pattern by mobile application (App) in order to identify problematic smartphone use, a total of 79 college students were monitored by the App for 1 month. The App-generated parameters included the daily use/non-use frequency, the total duration and the daily median of the duration per epoch. We introduced two other parameters, the root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) and the Similarity Index, in order to explore the similarity in use and non-use between participants. The non-use frequency, non-use duration and non-use-median parameters were able to significantly predict problematic smartphone use. A lower value for the RMSSD and Similarity Index, which represent a higher use/non-use similarity, were also associated with the problematic smartphone use. The use/non-use similarity is able to predict problematic smartphone use and reach beyond just determining whether a person shows excessive use.
PurposeThe aim of this paper is to determine the essential features of information literacy; what role it should play in university library user education; and how programs can be best implemented.Design/methodology/approachThe researchers systemically surveyed and reviewed publications related to information literacy and library user education.FindingsIt was found that a well‐designed information literacy program benefits the library and its staff, faculty, and students; librarians should play a leading role in the design and operation of programs, but collaboration with faculty, IT professionals and students is essential; programs should be embedded in the curriculum, be largely cooperative, and be problem‐based; evaluation and assessment are essential components; emphasis should be placed on first‐year students; and, ideally, the librarians will turn into educators and the library will become a learning center combining learning, research and technology.Research limitations/implicationsThis paper reflects the opinions of the researchers and the authors of the reviewed literature who have insights into the issues related to information literacy and library user education. These opinions present useful guidelines for both librarian and teacher practitioners.Originality/valueThis paper provides a point of view on the relationship between information literacy and library user education in the six themes described above.
ZnO was grown on sapphire substrate by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition using the diethylzinc (DEZn) and oxygen (O2) as source chemicals at 500 °C. Influences of the chamber pressure and O2/DEZn ratio on the ZnO structural properties were discussed. It was found that the chamber pressure has significant effects on the morphology of ZnO and could result in various structures of ZnO including pyramid-like, worm-like, and columnar grain. When the chamber pressure was kept at 10 Torr, the lowest full width at half-maximum of ZnO (002) of 175 arc second can be obtained. On the other hand, by lowering the DEZn flow rate, the crystal quality of ZnO can be improved. Under high DEZn flow rate, the ZnO nanowall-network structures were found to grow vertically on the sapphire substrate without using any metal catalysts. It suggests that higher DEZn flow rate promotes three-dimensional growth mode resulting in increased surface roughness. Therefore, some tip on the ZnO surface could act as nucleation site. In this work, the growth process of our ZnO nanowall networks is said to follow the self-catalyzed growth mechanism under high-DEZn flow rate.
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