Keywords:Mixed-integer linear programming Renewable energy park Scheduling Virtual power producer a b s t r a c t In the energy management of the isolated operation of small power system, the economic scheduling of the generation units is a crucial problem. Applying right timing can maximize the performance of the supply. The optimal operation of a wind turbine, a solar unit, a fuel cell and a storage battery is searched by a mixed-integer linear programming implemented in General Algebraic Modeling Systems (GAMS). A Virtual Power Producer (VPP) can optimal operate the generation units, assured the good functioning of equipment, including the maintenance, operation cost and the generation measurement and control. A central control at system allows a VPP to manage the optimal generation and their load control. The application of methodology to a real case study in Budapest Tech, demonstrates the effectiveness of this method to solve the optimal isolated dispatch of the DC micro-grid renewable energy park. The problem has been converged in 0.09 s and 30 iterations.
a b s t r a c tIn competitive electricity markets with deep concerns for the efficiency level, demand response programs gain considerable significance. As demand response levels have decreased after the introduction of competition in the power industry, new approaches are required to take full advantage of demand response opportunities. This paper presents DemSi, a demand response simulator that allows studying demand response actions and schemes in distribution networks. It undertakes the technical validation of the solution using realistic network simulation based on PSCAD. The use of DemSi by a retailer in a situation of energy shortage, is presented. Load reduction is obtained using a consumer based price elasticity approach supported by real time pricing. Non-linear programming is used to maximize the retailer's profit, determining the optimal solution for each envisaged load reduction. The solution determines the price variations considering two different approaches, price variations determined for each individual consumer or for each consumer type, allowing to prove that the approach used does not significantly influence the retailer's profit.The paper presents a case study in a 33 bus distribution network with 5 distinct consumer types. The obtained results and conclusions show the adequacy of the used methodology and its importance for supporting retailers' decision making.
The use of distributed generation and demand-response (DR) programs is needed for improving business models, namely concerning the remuneration of these resources in the context of smart grids. In this paper, a methodology is proposed in which a virtual power player aggregates several small-sized resources, including consumers participating in DR programs. The global operation costs resulting from the resource scheduling are minimized. After scheduling the resources in several operation scenarios, clustering tools are applied in order to obtain distinct resources' groups. The remuneration structure that better fits the aggregator goals is then determined. Two clustering algorithms are compared: 1) hierarchical; and 2) fuzzy c-means clustering. The remuneration of small resources and consumers that are aggregated is made considering the maximum tariff in each group. The implemented case study considers 2592 operation scenarios based on a real Portuguese distribution network with 548 distributed generators and 20 310 consumers.
a b s t r a c tSmart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32-bus distribution network in the case study section considering different scenarios of EVs penetration to analyze their impact in the network and in the other energy resources management.
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