Background Legislation regulating for labeling and use of genetically modified (GM) crops are increased considerably worldwide in order to health and safety assurance of consumers. For this purpose, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed for detection of GM rice in people's food diet. Methods In this study, eighty-one non-labeled rice samples were collected randomly from different market sites of Tehran, Iran. In order to analysis, rice genomic DNA was extracted using MBST DNA extraction kit and subsequently, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. Then, cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and Agrobacterium nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator were selected as screening targets for detection of GM rice sequences by PCR. Results According to our results, 2 out of 81 (2.4%) samples tested were positive for CaMV 35S promoter while no positive result was detected for NOS terminator. Conclusion The obtained data indicated that this method is capable to identify the GM rice varieties. Furthermore, it can demonstrate the possibility of the presence of GM rice in Tehran's market, thus putting emphasis on the requirement for developing a precise approach to evaluate this product.
Purpose: The increase of bacterial resistance to common antibacterial agents is one of the major problems of health care systems and hospital infection control programs. In this study, antimicrobial activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated against E. coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus pathogenic bacteria by determining sensitivity coefficient and kinetics of bacterial death. Methods: Antimicrobial tests were performed with ~106 CFU/mL of each bacterium at baseline. At first, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was concluded by the dilution method and then, death kinetic and susceptibility coefficient of NPs suspensions was determined at 0 to 360 min. treatment time. Results: The results of this study revealed that, the highest susceptibility was observed for L. monocytogenes (Z=0.025 mL/μg) to TiO2 NPs, whereas the lowest susceptibility was obtained in the reaction of ZnO NPs with S. enteritidis (Z=0.0033 mL/μg). The process of bacterial death in NPs suspension was assumed to follow first-degree kinetic and the survival ratio of bacteria decreased by the increase in treatment time. An increase in the concentration of NPs was seen to enhance the bactericidal action. Conclusion: Results showed that L. monocytogenes had higher sensitivity compared to S. enteritidis. The results of this study also demonstrated that TiO2 NPs have a strong antimicrobial effect in comparison with ZnO NPs and it could be employed to aid the control of pathogenic bacteria.
Soy and maize are the most cultivated genetically modified (GM) crops in the world, which are commonly used in many food products. Establishing regulations for food products containing transgenic materials are obligatory in many countries in order to provide consumers with information. For this purpose, an accurate qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was applied to investigate GM food products from Iran. In present study, a total of 90 non-labeled soy and maize samples were collected from Tehran's market and their DNA were extracted by a kit. All samples were analyzed to screen the 35 S promoter and (nopaline synthase) NOS terminator elements. Having screened the GM positive samples, they were subjected to identification of specific transgenic events RR soy, Bt11 and MON810 maize with PCR. According to our results, 95% of soy and 60% of maize analyzed samples were positive for the 35 S promoter and NOS terminator. Furthermore, event-specific analysis indicated the presence of RR soy, Bt11 and MON810 maize in tested samples, while none of these food-derived samples demonstrated any GM label. The obtained results revealed that the necessity of monitoring system to provide a good reliable control of GM materials in food products and subsequently on their labeling.
Background: Fruit leathers are nutritional products that are made by dehydrating a thin layer of fruit puree or juice under specific conditions, to obtain a chewy snack. Usually, the sun drying system is used to make traditional leathers, consequently takes a relatively long time and infections may occur during this period. Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the chemical and microbial quality of traditional fruit leathers. Methods: In this study, 30 traditional sample leathers were obtained from the local market of Tehran. The pH, moisture, and microbiological load were measured in calculated samples. The pH was determined using a pH meter and moisture content values of all fruit leather samples were determined using the AOAC official method. For the assessment of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast, and mold, dilutions were prepared and inoculated, followed by incubation for two and seven days at 37°C and 25°C, respectively. Also, this research used Green Bile Broth Brilliant Culture medium and most probable number (MPN) method for E. coli detection. Results: The measured pH of the samples was in the range of 2.3 to 3.6 and 56% of the samples had a higher moisture content than the standard. Measuring the microbial load of the samples showed that they were over-contaminated in 16% of cases. Also, E. coli was identified in four samples. Conclusions: This study showed that the high microbial load of traditional leathers, due to unhealthy production, is predictable. Thus, the correction of the traditional method for this product is recommended.
Microbial contamination of milk can lead to undesirable effects on texture, color, odor, or flavor that result in shorter shelf life. It may also cause serious illnesses in consumers if it contains over than standard limit of these parameters. In this data, we evaluate the total bacterial count (TBC) and somatic cell count (SCC) of raw milk in East Azerbaijan province using BactoScan and Fossomatic equipment, respectively. According to the 30 points selected in the province map, the 10,800 samples were collected during a one-year period. Microbiological results in this data show heavy contaminations of milk samples with TBC indicator (73.6%), while SCC in only 6.4% samples were over the recommended levels by the Iranian standard. Therefore, it is necessary to take attention in order to control of these microbial parameters especially TBC during of milk production to avoid the potential risk of high microbial contamination.
Ochratoxin A is one of the most important toxic metabolites of fungi that can be found in agricultural products. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and concentration of OTA in spices through meta-analysis. Therefore, online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened systematically from 1995 to 2022 to collect the related data. After assessing for eligibility, 36 articles with 1686 samples were included in the study. According to findings, the global pooled prevalence of OTA was counted as 50% (95% CI: 47–52%). Moreover, the highest and lowest concentrations of OTA in spices were noted in paprika (50.66 ng/g) and cinnamon (3.4 ng/g), respectively. The outcome of this meta-analysis can be used for risk assessment model development, aiming to help the government and industries for finding a specific way to reduce the prevalence of OTA spice products.
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