Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects.We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives. Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and DIVERSITAS, the TRY database (TRY-not an acronym, rather a statement of sentiment; https ://www.try-db.org; Kattge et al., 2011) was proposed with the explicit assignment to improve the availability and accessibility of plant trait data for ecology and earth system sciences. The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) offered to host the database and the different groups joined forces for this community-driven program. Two factors were key to the success of TRY: the support and trust of leaders in the field of functional plant ecology submitting large databases and the long-term funding by the Max Planck Society, the MPI-BGC and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, which has enabled the continuous development of the TRY database.
A new dataset of ecological indicator values for species, subspecies and some varieties, hybrids and infrageneric species groups has been compiled for the vascular flora of the Czech Republic. Indicator values for light, temperature, moisture, (soil) reaction, nutrient availability and salinity were assigned to 2275 species and 801 other taxa, using the nine-degree (or 12-degree for moisture and 10-degree for salinity) ordinal scales proposed by Heinz Ellenberg for the flora of Germany. The values are compatible with Ellenberg indicator values, which were used as a baseline, but extensively revised based on our own field observations, literature, comparison with indicator value systems of other countries and an analysis of taxon co-occurrences in vegetation plots from the Czech National Phytosociological Database. Taxa in the Czech flora missing in the original Ellenberg tables were added. Compared with the original Ellenberg's dataset of indicator values, smaller proportions of taxa were classified as extremely basiphilous, extremely oligotrophic or strictly avoiding saline habitats. The revised values were tested by regressing unweighted site mean indicator values against measured environmental variables. In most cases, prediction of environmental conditions was slightly more accurate with the new Czech indicator values than with the original Ellenberg indicator values. The full dataset of indicator values is available in an electronic appendix to this paper.
The Pladias (Plant Diversity Analysis and Synthesis) Database of the Czech Flora and Vegetation was developed by the Pladias project team in 2014-2018 and has been continuously updated since then. The flora section of the database contains critically revised information on the Czech vascular flora, including 13.6 million plant occurrence records, which are dynamically displayed in maps, and data on 120 plant characteristics (traits, environmental associations and other information), divided into the sections: (1) Habitus and growth type, (2) Leaf, (3) Flower, (4) Fruit, seed and dispersal, (5) Belowground organs and clonality, (6) Trophic mode, (7) Karyology, (8) Taxon origin, (9) Ecological indicator values, (10) Habitat and sociology, (11) Distribution and frequency, and (12) Threats and protection. The vegetation section of the database contains information on Czech vegetation types extracted from the monograph Vegetation of the Czech Republic. The data are supplemented by national botanical bibliographies, electronic versions of the standard national flora and vegetation monographs, a database of more than 19,000 pictures of plant taxa and vegetation types, and digital maps (shapefiles) with botanical information. The data from the database are available online on a public portal www.pladias.cz, which also provides download options for various datasets and online identification keys to the species and vegetation types of the Czech Republic. In this paper, we describe the general scope, structure and content of the database, and details of the data on plant characteristics. To illustrate the data and describe the main geographic patterns in selected plant characteristics, we provide maps of mean values of numerical characteristics or proportions of categories for categorical characteristics on the map of the country in a grid of 5 longitudinal × 3 latitudinal minutes (approximately 6.0 km × 5.5 km). We also summarize the main variation patterns in the functional traits in the Czech flora using the principal component analysis.
2018): Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 7. -Preslia 90: 425-531.The seventh part of the series on the distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic includes grid maps of 104 taxa in the genera Anthriscus, These maps were produced by taxonomic experts based on examined herbarium specimens, literature and field records. Many of the studied native species are on the national Red List. The genus most affected by decline in abundance is Gentianella, which includes six taxa extirpated from this country and six taxa critically threatened. Another group with a high proportion of endangered species comprises aquatic and wetland plants, which are represented by Callitriche hermaphroditica, Hydrocharis morsusranae, Najas minor, Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum and Stratiotes aloides. Other ecologically specialized groups include mainly montane wetland plants (Epilobium anagallidifolium, E. nutans and Rubus chamaemorus) and plants of rocky habitats (Polypodium interjectum, Trichomanes speciosum and Woodsia ilvensis). The previously rare Woodsia alpina has been extirpated from this country. Alien species mapped in this paper include both archaeophytes and neophytes, mainly from the genera Anthriscus, Cochlearia, Elodea, Epilobium, Hordeum and Phleum. Cochlearia danica, Dittrichia graveolens and Limonium gmelinii have recently colonized habitats along the roads treated by de-icing salt. Senecio inaequidens has also spread mainly along motorways. Epilobium adenocaulon is another successful neophyte; it is now widespread throughout this country and the most successful hybrid parent within the genus. Neophyte aquatics are represented by Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii. Spatial distributions and often also temporal dynamics of individual taxa are shown in maps and documented by records included in the Pladias database and available in electronic appendices. The maps are accompanied by comments that include additional information on the distribution, habitats, taxonomy and biology of the taxa. K e y w o r d s:
Aims Understanding fine‐grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine‐grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups). Location Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2 and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class. Results Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi‐natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open‐access file ”GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks” and the web tool “GrassPlot Diversity Explorer” are now available online (https://edgg.org/databases/GrasslandDiversityExplorer) and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats. Conclusions The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high‐quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation‐plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology.
1. The species richness-productivity relationship is one of the most debated patterns in ecology. Species coexistence theory suggests that it could be tightly linked to the type of nutrient limitation (no limitation, single-nutrient limitation, colimitation by several nutrients). Yet, the effects of nutrient limitation on the species richness-productivity relationship have been rarely studied at the regional and continental scales.2. Combining the predictions of the humped-back model and the niche dimension hypothesis, we hypothesized that an increase in plant species richness with the number of different limiting nutrients is detectable only at higher productivity levels, at which competition for nutrients is more intense. Therefore, we expected the shape of the diversity-productivity relationship to differ between sites colimited by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), sites limited by a single nutrient (either N or P), and sites not limited by any of these nutrients.3. To test this hypothesis, we used species richness data collected in 10 m × 10 m plots at 694 temperate dry grassland sites across eight regions in northern Eurasia.Productivity ranged from 10 to ~500 g/m 2 of above-ground standing biomass. The type of nutrient limitation was identified by critical nutrient ratios alone and their combination with critical nutrient concentrations measured in the plant tissue.Relationships were analysed using generalized linear and mixed-effect models. 4. In line with our expectations, species richness of Eurasian temperate dry grasslands increased more steeply and peaked higher under higher productivity levels at N&P-colimited sites. When nutrient limitation was assessed by both ratios and concentrations, species richness at N&P-colimited sites continued to increase | 1039 Journal of Ecology PALPURINA et AL. S U PP O RTI N G I N FO R M ATI O N Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of the article. How to cite this article: Palpurina S, Chytrý M, Hölzel N, et al. The type of nutrient limitation affects the plant species richness-productivity relationship: Evidence from dry grasslands across Eurasia.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.