We study the dynamics of flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies in the presence of a triplet of massive vector fields with SO(3) global symmetry. We find an E 3 -symmetric ansatz for the vector fields that is compatible with the E 3 -invariant FRW metric and propose a method to make invariant ansätze for more general cosmological models. We use techniques of dynamical systems to study qualitatively the behaviour of the model and find, in particular, that the effective equation of state of the system changes gradually from a radiation-dominated to a matter-dominated form and that the scale of the transition depends on the mass of the gauge fields. † Work supported in part by a JNICT graduate scholarship BD/138/90-RM and by STRIDE/FEDER Project JN.91.02.‡ Work supported by a GTAE (Grupo Teórico de Altas Energias) grant.
The canonical quantization of N = 1 and N = 2 supergravity theories is reviewed in this report. A special emphasis is given to the topic of supersymmetric Bianchi class-A and FRW minisuperspaces, namely in the presence of supermatter fields. The quantization of the general theory (including supermatter) is also contemplated. The issue of quantum physical states is subsequently analysed.
Cosmologies with a Chaplygin gas have recently been explored with the objective of explaining the transition from a dust dominated epoch towards an accelerating expansion stage. We consider the hypothesis that the transition to the accelerated period involves a quantum mechanical process. Three physically admissible cases are possible. In particular, we identify a minisuperspace configuration with two Lorentzian sectors, separated by a classically forbidden region. The Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin wave functions are computed, together with the transition amplitudes towards the accelerating epoch. Furthermore, it is found that for specific initial conditions, the parameters characterizing the generalized Chaplygin gas become related through an expression involving an integer n. We also introduce a phenomenological association between some brane-world scenarios and a FRW minisuperspace cosmology with a generalized Chaplygin gas. The aim is to promote a discussion and subsequent research on the quantum creation of brane cosmologies from such a perspective. Results suggest that the brane tension would become related with generalized Chaplygin gas parameters through another expression involving an integer.PACS numbers: 98.80.-k, 98.80.Qc
Diagonal Bianchi type-IX models are studied in the quantum theory of N = 1 supergravity with a cosmological constant. It is shown, by imposing the supersymmetry and Lorentz quantum constraints, that there are no physical quantum states in this model. The k = +1 Friedmann model in supergravity with cosmological constant does admit quantum states. However, the Bianchi type-IX model provides a better guide to the behaviour of a generic state, since more gravitino modes are available to be excited. These results indicate that there may be no physical quantum states in the full theory of N = 1 supergravity with a non-zero cosmological constant.
Classical models for dark energy can exhibit a variety of singularities, many of which occur for scale factors much bigger than the Planck length. We address here the issue whether some of these singularities, the big freeze and the big démarrage, can be avoided in quantum cosmology. We use the framework of quantum geometrodynamics. We restrict our attention to a class of models whose matter content can be described by a generalized Chaplygin gas and be represented by a scalar field with an appropriate potential. Employing the DeWitt criterium that the wave function be zero at the classical singularity, we show that a class of solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation fulfilling this condition can be found. These solutions thus avoid the classical singularity. We discuss the reasons for the remaining ambiguity in fixing the solution.
Abstract. A non-linear gravitational model with a multidimensional geometry and quadratic scalar curvature is considered. For certain parameter ranges, the extra dimensions are stabilized if the internal spaces have negative constant curvature. As a consequence, the 4-dimensional effective cosmological constant as well as the bulk cosmological constant become negative. The homogeneous and isotropic external space is asymptotically AdS4. The connection between the D-dimensional and the 4-dimensional fundamental mass scales sets an additional restriction on the parameters of the considered non-linear models.
Within an algebraic framework, used to construct the induced-matter-theory (IMT) setting, in (D + 1)-dimensional Brans-Dicke (BD) scenario, we obtain a modified BD theory (MBDT) in D dimensions. Being more specific, from the (D + 1)-dimensional field equations, a D-dimensional BD theory, bearing new features, is extracted by means of a suitable dimensional reduction onto a hypersurface orthogonal to the extra dimension. In particular, the BD scalar field in such Ddimensional theory has a self-interacting potential, which can be suitably interpreted as produced by the extra dimension. Subsequently, as an application to cosmology, we consider an extended spatially flat FLRW geometry in a (D + 1)-dimensional space-time. After obtaining the power-law solutions in the bulk, we proceed to construct the corresponding physics, by means of the induced MBDT procedure, on the D-dimensional hypersurface. We then contrast the resulted solutions (for different phases of the universe) with those usually extracted from the conventional GR and BD theories in view of current ranges for cosmological parameters. We show that the induced perfect fluid background and the induced scalar potential can be employed, within some limits, for describing different epochs of the universe. Finally, we comment on the observational viability of such a model.
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