The diagnosis of benign hepatic tumors as hepatic adenoma (HA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. The importance of differentiating between these lesions is based on the fact that HA must be surgically resected and FNH can be only observed. A series of 23 female patients with benign liver tumors (13 FNH, 10 HA) were evaluated, and a radiologic diagnostic algorithm was employed with the aim of establishing preoperative criteria for the differential diagnosis. All patients were submitted to surgical biopsy or hepatic resection to confirm the diagnosis. Based only on clinical and laboratory data, distinction was not possible. According to the investigative algorithm, the diagnosis was correct in 82.6% of the cases; but even with the development of imaging methods, which were used in combination, the differentiation was not possible in four patients. For FNH cases scintigraphy presented a sensitivity of 38.4% and specificity of 100%, whereas for HA the sensitivity reached 60% and specificity 85.7%. Magnetic resonance imaging, employed when scintigraphic findings were not typical, presented sensitivities of 71.4% and 80% and specificities of 100% and 100% for FNH and HA, respectively. Preoperative diagnosis of FNH was possible in 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients and was confirmed by histology in all of them. In one case, FNH was misdiagnosed as HA. The diagnosis of HA was possible in 9 of 10 (90%) adenoma cases. Surgical biopsy remains the best method for the differential diagnosis between HA and FNH and must be performed in all doubtful cases. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for all patients with adenoma and can be performed safely. With the evolution of imaging methods it seems that the preoperative diagnosis of FNH may be considered reliable, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical resection.
The indications for segmental liver resections are increasing. This type of procedure can be performed by deep wedge transparenchymal transection or by the intrahepatic approach, reaching the portal pedicle through the hilar plate. We devised a systematized way to perform such an operation.Design: Original surgical technique.Patients and Methods: Fourteen consecutive patients (8 men and 6 women; mean age, 55 years) underwent right segmental liver resections between July 1, 2001, and July 31, 2002. Seven patients had liver metastasis, 3 had primary liver cancer, 3 had benign lesions, and 1 had gallbladder cancer. The surgery was performed by making 3 small incisions around the hilar plate. With a stan-
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been progressively developed along the past two decades. Despite initial skepticism, improved operative results made laparoscopic approach incorporated to surgical practice and operations increased in frequency and complexity. Evidence supporting LLR comes from case-series, comparative studies and meta-analysis. Despite lack of level 1 evidence, the body of literature is stronger and existing data confirms the safety, feasibility and benefits of laparoscopic approach when compared to open resection. Indications for LLR do not differ from those for open surgery. They include benign and malignant (both primary and metastatic) tumors and living donor liver harvesting. Currently, resection of lesions located on anterolateral segments and left lateral sectionectomy are performed systematically by laparoscopy in hepatobiliary specialized centers. Resection of lesions located on posterosuperior segments (1, 4a, 7, 8) and major liver resections were shown to be feasible but remain technically demanding procedures, which should be reserved to experienced surgeons. Hand-assisted and laparoscopy-assisted procedures appeared to increase the indications of minimally invasive liver surgery and are useful strategies applied to difficult and major resections. LLR proved to be safe for malignant lesions and offers some short-term advantages over open resection. Oncological results including resection margin status and long-term survival were not inferior to open resection. At present, surgical community expects high quality studies to base the already perceived better outcomes achieved by laparoscopy in major centers' practice. Continuous surgical training, as well as new technologies should augment the application of laparoscopic liver surgery. Future applicability of new technologies such as robot assistance and image-guided surgery is still under investigation.
Esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy promote a significant reduction of the elevated portal pressure and flow in schistosomal portal hypertension. These data favor the hypothesis of portal hyperflow in the physiopathology of portal hypertension of schistosomiasis.
The main advantage of the intrahepatic Glissonian procedure over other techniques is the possibility of gaining a rapid and precise access to the left Glissonian sheaths facilitating left hemihepatectomy, bisegmentectomy 2-3, and individual resections of segments 2, 3, and 4. The authors believe that the intrahepatic Glissonian technique facilitates laparoscopic liver resection and may increase the development of segment-based laparoscopic liver resection.
Background and study aims
Endoscopic removal of biliary stones has high success rates, ranging between 85 % to 95 %. Nevertheless, some stones may be challenging and different endoscopic methods have evolved. Papillary large balloon dilation after sphincterotomy is a widely used technique with success rates ranging from 68 to 90 % for stones larger than 15 mm. Cholangioscopy allows performing lithotripsy under direct biliary visualization, either by laser or electrohydraulic waves, which have similar success rate (80 % – 90 %). However, there is no study comparing these 2 techniques.
Patients and methods
From April 2014 to June 2016, 100 patients were enrolled and randomized in 2 groups, using a non-inferiority hypothesis: cholangioscopy + electrohydraulic lithotripsy (group 1) and endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (group 2). The main outcome was complete stone removal. Adverse events were documented. Mechanical lithotripsy was not performed. Failure cases had a second session with crossover of the methods.
The mean age was 56 years. 74 (75.5 %) patients were female. The initial overall complete stone removal rate was 74.5 % (77.1 % in group 1 and 72 % in group 2,
> 0.05). After second session the overall success rate achieved 90.1 %. Procedure time was significantly lower in group 2, – 25.2 min (CI95 % – 12.48 to – 37.91). There were no significant differences regarding technical success rate, radiologic exposure and adverse events.
Single-operator cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy and papillary large balloon dilation are effective and safe approaches for removing complex biliary stones.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.