Few studies have considered symptoms, underlying mechanisms and different kinds of adversity at the same time. Future research along these lines will have the potential to elucidate the mechanisms that lead to severe mental illness, and may have considerable clinical implications.
CD is highly prevalent in parents of psychotic offspring. This is discussed in the broader context of adoption and longitudinal studies that have reported a G × E interaction in the development of psychosis and thought disorder. A potential developmental mechanism is suggested to explain how CD may affect the developing offspring. The importance of further studies on CD and its potential value as a clinical concept are discussed.
Eighty patients and thirty controls were interviewed using one interview that promoted personal disclosure and another about everyday topics. Speech was scored using the Thought, Language and Communication scale (TLC). All participants completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) and the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ). Patients scored lower than comparisons on the SCCS. Low scores were associated the disorganized dimension of TD. Patients also scored significantly higher on condensed and other people in inner speech, but not on dialogical or evaluative inner speech. The poverty of speech dimension of TD was associated with less dialogical inner speech, other people in inner speech, and less evaluative inner speech. Hallucinations were significantly associated with more other people in inner speech and evaluative inner speech. Clarity of self-concept and qualities of inner speech are differentially associated with dimensions of TD. The findings also support inner speech models of hallucinations.
The association is interpreted within models of communication that highlight the importance of mentalisation and processing of partner-specific cues in conversational alignment and grounding.Declaration of interestsNone.
Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research.
Thought disorder (TD) has been shown to vary in relation to negative affect. Here we examine the role internal source monitoring (iSM, i.e. ability to discriminate between inner speech and verbalized speech) in TD and whether changes in iSM performance are implicated in the affective reactivity effect (deterioration of TD when participants are asked to talk about emotionally-laden topics). Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and thirty healthy controls received interviews that promoted personal disclosure (emotionally salient) and interviews on everyday topics (non-salient) on separate days. During the interviews, participants were tested on iSM, self-reported affect and immediate auditory recall. Patients had more TD, poorer ability to discriminate between inner and verbalized speech, poorer immediate auditory recall and reported more negative affect than controls. Both groups displayed more TD and negative affect in salient interviews but only patients showed poorer performance on iSM. Immediate auditory recall did not change significantly across affective conditions. In patients, the relationship between self-reported negative affect and TD was mediated by deterioration in the ability to discriminate between inner speech and speech that was directed to others and socially shared (performance on the iSM) in both interviews. Furthermore, deterioration in patients' performance on iSM across conditions significantly predicted deterioration in TD across the interviews (affective reactivity of speech). Poor iSM is significantly associated with TD. Negative affect, leading to further impaired iSM, leads to increased TD in patients with psychosis. Avenues for future research as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
The article aims to analyze the impact on the mental health of the LGBT + population, after the electoral period the 2018, correlating with the main facts that occurred in these three axes: subjectivity, politics and health. With a view to understanding the reflexes they caused due to stigmas, discrimination, prejudice, as well as the threat against their social and human rights, these conquered with great difficulty, during the electoral period. The methodology used for this work was a qualitative research, developed in the capital of Piauí, Teresina. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method of interpretation of meanings carried out with Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Travestis and Transsexuals. (LGBT´s) regardless of whether they are assumed to be their relatives or not, aged 18 or over, members of a social movement on LGBT causes and who have already completed or are in higher education. The results show how the figure of Jair Bolsonaro contributed to legitimize a network of hate speech against “social minorities”, among them LGBT people, culminating in a necropolitics or politics of death.
A better understanding of how social factors relate to the psychological processes in thought disorder (TD) is necessary for the development of effective psychological interventions. Sixty-eight participants diagnosed with psychosis (18-65; 47.1% female) were recruited and evaluated on social cognition (Hinting Task, HT; and reading the mind in the eyes test, RMET), social isolation (size of social network, frequency and quality of contact), psychotic symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS) and TD (Thought, Language and Communication Disorders Scale, TLC). A mediation model was tested with isolation as the predictor, TD as the outcome, and performance on HT and RMET as the mediators. The final model, with adjustment for comorbid symptoms (i.e. delusions, suspiciousness, hallucinations, and negative symptoms), supported full mediation and explained a significant amount of the observed variance (60%). Performance on the HT was a significant mediator of the relationship between social isolation and TD. From the covariates, delusions contributed independently and significantly to TD. The implications of the findings for psychological practice, and TD-specific interventions, are discussed as well as the limitations of the study. Further avenues for symptom-specific research are discussed, in particular with reference to more complex psychosocial models.
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