An increase in GSH may be attained by NAC or Gln supplementation, with NAC acting by increasing cysteine levels and Gln likely acting by replenishing the glycine pool (trial registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT00910442).
Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people worldwide. In Latin America, 25 million people live in risk areas, while in 2008 alone, 10,000 CD-related deaths were reported. This review aimed to evaluate the challenges of CD control, future perspectives, and actions performed worldwide to control expansion of the disease and its impact on public health in Latin America.
Forty patients with a diagnosis of snake bite were studied at the Infectious and Parasitic Disease Service of the Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu. Thirty were males and 10 females, ranging in age from 16 to 70 years. All were farm laborers and 35 of them were bitten in the lower limbs. Two of the 9 patients seen more than 6 hours after the bite died. The low mortality rate (5%) observed could be explained by the early care provided, by the use of appropriate doses of anti-crotalus serum, parenteral hydration, urine alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate and induction of osmotic diuresis with a mannitol solution. Anatomopathological examination of one of the patients who died revealed extensive hepatic necrosis. The authors discuss the possibility of the effect of a factor of snake venom in the genesis of hepatic necrosis and in the increased transaminase levels.
Host nutritional state has an important role in susceptibility to bacteria, parasites, and viral infections. Infection precipitates the appearance of signs and symptoms of nutrition deficiencies in the undernourished; this can aggravate infection evolution. Infection stimulates specific and non-specific host defense mechanisms; these are directly influenced by the nutritional state of micro- and macronutrients. Immune alterations, which are closely related to nutritional status, markedly contribute to a higher susceptibility to infectious agents and can also contribute to worsening nutritional state, forming a vicious cycle
Background: Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) is the most common type of malnutrition. PCM leads to immunodeficiency and consequent increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In addition, responses to prophylactic vaccines depend on nutritional status. This study aims to evaluate the ability of undernourished mice to mount an immune response to a genetic vaccine (pVAXhsp65) against tuberculosis, containing the gene coding for the heat shock protein 65 from mycobacteria.
Epidemiological, clinical, nutritional, and biochemical data were collected, including gender, age, skin color, smoking, alcoholism, physical activity, weight, stature, body mass index, abdominal circumference, glycemia, and lipid profile. Fifty-three percent were male and 47% female; 96% were white skinned. Mean age was 49.6±6.36 years. The predominant form was indeterminate in 71%; smoking and drinking were recorded in 23% and 17%, respectively. Sedentariness predominated in 83%, and 55% presented increased abdominal circumference. Most, 94%, were overweight or obese. The biochemical exams revealed hyperglycemia in 12% and dyslipidemia in 74%. These findings suggest that the Chagas population presents co-morbidities and risk factors for developing chronic non-transmissible diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, making CD evolution even worse.
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