ResumoO objetivo do artigo é explicitar, por meio de uma análise teórica, a importância do papel da sociedade e da construção de sujeitos políticos na implementação do SUS através dos Conselhos de Saúde. Visa contribuir para a discussão sobre modos de participação social que vêm sendo construídos no interior das arenas dos colegiados de participação na democracia brasileira. Discutem-se as transformações políticas deflagradas entre os anos 1970 e 1990, em que diferentes modos de participação social encontrariam seus principais desafios polí-ticos. Em seguida, analisam-se alguns dos dilemas da participação da sociedade nos conselhos sob uma perspectiva teórica, sustentada pela reflexão sobre novos movimentos sociais e representação de interesses (ou neocorporativismo). Os Conselhos de Saúde, nos anos 1990, se institucionalizaram e expressaram a necessidade da aproximação entre Estado e sociedade. Formalizaram a participação da sociedade e o controle social na construção das agendas políticas da saúde, sendo profundamente influenciados pela conjuntura política nacional. Conclui-se sobre a mudança operada nos Conselhos de Saúde e o papel efetivamente desenvolvido por eles nos dias de hoje.
Maintenance is one of the main drivers for ensuring the sustainability of manufacturing in capital-intensive production systems. However, in many cases, as a result of budgetary constraints, it is necessary to select which machines will be subject to maintenance actions on the basis of a list of priorities. Traditionally, such prioritization decisions are made using techniques which, in general, do not consider the systemic impact of maintenance actions. This paper is focused at the definition of a novel graphical technique for physical assets prioritization. This technique is aimed at establishing maintenance priorities considering the impact on the overall throughput of the production system. Due to the fact that the proposed technique is based on the well-known Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) index, its use is not only limited to measuring the effects of maintenance decisions and actions (availability), but also to operational implications (productivity and utilization). The results could be displayed graphically, which makes it particularly useful and manageable for different types of users. The methodology is illustrated though an example based on a comminution plant from the copper mine industry. It is evident how the proposed technique facilitates business-oriented and economic sustainability focused decisions.
The objective of this article is to present a methodology for computing and allocating wastewater recuperation costs using an Activity-Based Costing (ABC) methodology. One of the most critical problems in modelling those costs is the limited information and the subjectivity used to represent some of the cost's elements (e.g., values, drivers, among others). Thus, a fuzzy ABC approach is incorporated into the methodology to overcome those limitations. The application of this methodology aims at providing an alternative procedure to allocating the costs related to wastewater management activities to products. To validate the proposed methodology and illustrate its utility, a case study using data from a bus assembly plant is provided. Part of the wastewater produced is coming from a surface treatment installation which, after a recovery process, reuse part of the same water in a closed loop circuit. Using the proposed Fuzzy ABC methodology, the costs (including uncertainty) of the surface treatment and water treatment activities can be appropriately allocated to the products that generate those activities and that waste.
The concept of life cycle sustainability assessment provides an interdisciplinary space to discuss the main challenges in addressing sustainability from a long-term perspective. However, uncertainty related to cost parameters constitutes one of the main challenges in LCC. This uncertainty prevents managers from precisely anticipating the exact values of important variables. These variables include the costs of spare parts inventories, which in some cases can constitute high percentages of the total cost of a product or service. We propose an activity-based costing model that handles uncertainty using triangular numbers, along with a matrix representation, and Weibull functions to incorporate the projected equipment reliability into the model. A case study based on a spare parts distribution center, which serves the mining industry in Northern Chile, is presented. The results obtained are compared with a traditional costing method. The advantage of using the proposed approach over the traditional one is evident. Future research is directed towards the implementation of a larger number of inventory policies, along with experimentation with other types of fuzzy numbers.
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