Sanitary challenges negatively affect feed intake and growth, leading to a negative impact on animal well-being and economic losses. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to quantify the dynamic feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge. A database was constructed using 122 published experiments reporting the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs subjected to one of six sanitary challenges: digestive bacterial infections, poor housing conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, mycotoxicoses, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. The responses to experimental challenges were calculated relative to that of a control group. Statistical analyses were carried out for each challenge to quantify the mean and the dynamic responses in feed intake and growth and to identify the basis of the reduction in growth (i.e. reduction in feed intake or reduction in feed efficiency related to changes in maintenance requirements). All challenges resulted in a reduction in ADFI and ADG, with the strongest responses for mycotoxicoses, respiratory diseases and digestive bacterial infections (8% to 23% reduction in ADFI and 16% to 29% reduction in ADG). The reduction in ADG was linearly related to the reduction in ADFI for digestive bacterial infections, LPS challenge, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. For poor housing conditions and mycotoxicoses, the relationship was curvilinear. A 10% reduction in ADFI resulted in a reduction in ADG varying from 10% for mycotoxicoses to 43% for digestive bacterial infections. More than 70% of the reduction in ADG could be explained by the reduction in ADFI for mycotoxicoses, LPS challenge and respiratory diseases. For challenges associated with the gastrointestinal tract, a large part of the reduction in ADG was due to an increase in maintenance requirements, suggesting digestive and metabolic changes. A dynamic pattern in the reduction in feed intake and growth rate could be identified for digestive bacterial infections, mycotoxicoses and respiratory diseases. For digestive bacterial infections and mycotoxicoses, pigs did not fully recover from the challenge during the experimental period. The results of this study can be used to quantify the effects of a sanitary challenge in growth models of pigs.Keywords: meta-analysis, pigs, feed intake, growth, sanitary challenge Implications Diseases negatively affect feed intake and growth in pigs. This often results in a decrease in feed efficiency, an increase in production costs (e.g. feed and veterinary costs) and an increase in nutrient excretion and in environmental impact. Medication and/or feed additives are often used to limit the negative consequences of diseases. However, the development of sustainable pig production systems requires reducing the use of medication and feed additives. The ability to predict the performance of pigs under a wide range of sanitary challenges allows using management and feeding strategies to minimize the ne...
Empirical and factorial methods are currently used to estimate nutrient requirements for domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of a given pig population using the empirical and factorial methods; to establish the relationship between the requirements estimated with these two methods; and to study the limitations of the methods when used to determine the level of a nutrient needed to optimize individual and population responses of growing pigs. A systematic analysis was carried out on optimal lysine-to-net-energy (Lys : NE) ratios estimated by the empirical and factorial methods using a modified InraPorc R growth model. Sixty-eight pigs were individually simulated based on detailed experimental data. In the empirical method, population responses were estimated by feeding pigs with 11 diets of different Lys : NE ratios. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were the chosen performance criteria. These variables were combined with economic information to estimate the economic responses. In the factorial method, the Lys : NE ratio for each animal was estimated by model inversion. Optimal Lys : NE ratios estimated for growing pigs (25 to 105 kg) differed between the empirical and the factorial method. When the average pig is taken to represent a population, the factorial method does not permit estimation of the Lys : NE ratio that maximizes the response of heterogeneous populations in a given time or weight interval. Although optimal population responses are obtained by the empirical method, the estimated requirements are fixed and cannot be used for other growth periods or populations. This study demonstrates that the two methods commonly used to estimate nutrient requirements provide different nutrient recommendations and have important limitations that should be considered when the goal is to optimize the response of individuals or pig populations.
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation. Thus, the amino acid requirements estimated by model are animal- and time-dependent and follow, in real time, the individual DFI and BW growth patterns. The proposed model can follow the average feed intake and feed weight trajectory of each individual pig in real time with good accuracy. Based on these trajectories and using classical factorial equations, the model makes it possible to estimate dynamically the AA requirements of each animal, taking into account the intake and growth changes of the animal.
A meta-analysis was carried out in order to study the association of mycotoxins with performance and organ weights in growing pigs. A total of 85 articles published between 1968 and 2010 were used, totaling 1012 treatments and 13 196 animals. The metaanalysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation and variance-covariance. The presence of mycotoxins in diets was seen to reduce the feed intake by 18% and the weight gain in 21% compared with the control group. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest impact on the feed intake and growth of pigs, reducing by 26% and 16% in the feed intake and by 26% and 22% in the weight gain. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination in equations for estimating the effect of mycotoxins on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in younger animals. In addition, the residual analysis showed that the greater part of the variation in weight gain was explained by the variation in feed intake (87%). The protein and methionine levels in diets could influence the feed intake and the weight gain in challenged animals. The weight gain in challenged pigs showed a positive correlation with the methionine level in diets (0.68). The mycotoxin effect on growth was greater in males compared with the effect on females. The reduction in weight gain was of 15% in the female group and 19% in the male group. Mycotoxin presence in pig diets has interfered in the relative weight of the liver, the kidneys and the heart. Mycotoxins have an influence on performance and organ weight in pigs. However, the magnitude of the effects varies with the type and concentration of mycotoxin, sex and the animal age, as well as nutritional factors.Keywords: aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, nutrition, swine, trichothecenes ImplicationsThe mycotoxin effect on animal performance is recognized. However, this effect may be modified by several factors, which are noticeable in the large variability observed in previous results. This study is innovative, because it seeks to understand and quantify the interactions among mycotoxins and other factors such as nutrition, sex or growth phase of the pigs. The meta-analysis used the complementarities among previous studies in order to highlight gaps in mycotoxicology, which is hardly studied in traditional experimental designs. Furthermore, it aimed to assist in understanding the mycotoxin effects that this approach can support in the determination of dynamic growth standards for challenged animals.
RESUMO -Este texto descreve os princípios básicos de sistematização com enfoque em meta-análise. É apresentado o estado da arte da meta-análise, recuperando informações de sua evolução e metodologias básicas para sua realização. São descritos seus antecedentes históricos, os limites das abordagens clássicas de revisão de literatura, as bases conceituais, os objetivos e justificativas. É indicada uma metodologia geral para realização da meta-análise.São apresentados os critérios para a definição dos objetivos. São descritos os procedimentos de sistematização das informações e gestão de base bibliográfica de dados destinada aos estudos meta-analíticos (seleção, codificação, filtragem de dados). São apresentadas as análises mais comuns (gráfica, ponderações), a escolha do modelo estatístico (um fator explicativo qualitativo, um efeito qualitativo ou quantitativo), os fatores de interferência, os procedimentos pós-analíticos (variações residuais, heterogeneidade entre resultados). Em síntese, este texto mostra que a metaanálise é superior às formas tradicionais de revisão de literatura por estimar com maior precisão os efeitos dos tratamentos, ajustando-os para a heterogeneidade experimental. No entanto, a meta-análise exige os efeitos na sistematização e análise dos resultados da pesquisa.Palavras-chave: análise sistêmica, produção animal, revisão de literatura, sistematização Meta analysis in scientific research: a methodological approachABSTRACT -This text describes a basic approach of systematization with focus on meta-analysis. It is presented the art state of the meta-analysis, recovering information of its evolution and basic methodologies for its accomplishment. In this text are described the historical antecedents of meta-analysis, the limits of the classic approaches of literature review, the conceptual bases and the objectives. It is indicated a general methodology for meta-analysis procedures. The criteria for the definition of the objectives are presented. The procedures of the systematization and management of bibliographical data base selected to meta-analytic studies are described (selection, code, data filtration). The most common analysis (graph, adjustments) are presented, the choice of the statistical model (a qualitative explanatory factor, a qualitative or quantitative effect), the interference factors and the post-analytic procedures (residual variations, heterogeneity among results). In conclusion, this text shows that meta-analysis is better than traditional methods of literature review for esteeming with more precision the treatments effects adjusting it's for the experimental heterogeneity. However, the meta-analysis requires discipline in the systematization and analysis of the research results.
The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the metabolic utilization of energy in crossbred barrows during feed restriction and subsequent refeeding. Ten pigs, initially weighing 52 kg, were used in 5 blocks of 2 littermates each. A 7-d adaptation period (P1) was used in which pigs were offered feed at 2.60 MJ of ME.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1). This adaptation period was followed by a 7-d period (P2), in which 1 pig of each block continued to receive feed at the same level of feeding, whereas for its littermate a 40% reduction in feed intake was imposed (i.e., 1.55 MJ of ME.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1)). During the subsequent 7-d period (P3), both pigs were offered feed at 2.60 MJ of ME.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1). After P3, pigs were fasted for 1 d. Heat production (HP) was measured for all pigs during the last 3 d of P1 and on all days for P2 and P3. Heat production was measured using an open-circuit respiration chamber. Energy and N balances were determined for P1, P2, and P3. The HP was partitioned into HP due to physical activity, the short-term thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP. Feed restriction during P2 decreased (P < 0.01) total HP, resting HP, short-term thermic effect of feeding, and retained energy, whereas HP due to physical activity was not affected by feed restriction (P = 0.50). Likewise, fecal and urinary N loss, protein gain, lipid gain, and ADG were reduced during feed restriction (P < 0.01). There were no differences in components of HP and metabolic utilization of energy between the 2 groups during P1 and P3. Nevertheless, urinary N loss was decreased (P < 0.05) and ADG increased (P < 0.01) during P3 for pigs that were restricted in P2. Compensatory growth after a period of feed restriction does not seem to be related to a change in the metabolic utilization of energy for gain but more likely is due to gain in water and gut contents.
A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with performance, productive indices, and organ weights in broilers. Ninety-eight papers published between 1980 and 2009 were used, totaling 1,401 diets and 37,371 animals. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The mycotoxin presence in diets reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake by 12% and weight gain by 14% compared with control group. Ochratoxins and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest effect on feed intake and bird growth, reducing (P < 0.05) feed ingestion by 17 and 11%, respectively, and weight gain by 20 and 11%, respectively. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination for equations to estimate mycotoxin effect on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in young poultry. The residual analysis revealed that 65% of the variation in weight gain was explained by feed intake. The variation in weight gain of challenged broilers in relation to nonchallenged broilers was also influenced by ingestion of nutrients such as protein and methionine. Mortality was 8.8 and 2.8 times greater (P < 0.05) in groups that received diets with deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins, respectively. Mycotoxins also increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of liver by 15%, of kidneys by 11%, of lungs by 9%, and of gizzard by 3%. Mycotoxins influenced broiler performance, productive indices, and organ weights. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with type and concentration of mycotoxin, animal age, and nutritional factors.
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