Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.
ResumoA queda em idosos é resultado de uma interação complexa entre fatores intrínsecos e extrínsecos. Embora seja difícil separar esses fatores, estudos apontam que fatores de risco ambientais estão presentes em aproximadamente 40% das quedas. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre o envolvimento de fatores ambientais nas quedas em idosos vivendo na comunidade. Para tanto, foram selecionados estudos publicados no período de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2014 nas bases de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO. Apenas artigos disponíveis na íntegra e em inglês, português e espanhol foram considerados para esta revisão. Após a análise do título, do resumo e do texto na íntegra, dez artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Nos estudos analisados, aproximadamente metade das quedas ocorreu durante a locomoção e envolveu tropeços e escorregões. Os fatores de risco ambientais estão muito presentes nas quedas (20-58%), sendo que superfícies irregulares, superfícies molhadas/escorregadias, objetos/tapetes soltos e desníveis no chão/problemas com degraus foram os mais prevalentes. Observou-se tendência de aumento na ocorrência de quedas em ambientes externos, as quais são frequentemente precipitadas por fatores extrínsecos. Mais estudos são necessários na caracterização e no desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção de quedas em ambientes externos. AbstractFalls in the elderly is the result of a complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Although it is difficult to separate these factors, studies indicate that environmental hazards are involved in approximately 40% of the falls. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review about the contribution of environmental hazards for falls in community-dwelling elderly. Studies published from January 2000 to May 2014 in the electronic databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO were selected. Only free full-text articles written in English, Portuguese and Spanish were considered Palavras-chave: Acidentes por Quedas. Idoso. Medicina Ambiental.http://dx
Background The exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is mostly attributed to alterations in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal myopathy in patients with HFrEF are not completely understood. We hypothesized that (i) aerobic exercise training (AET) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would change skeletal muscle microRNA‐1 expression and downstream‐associated pathways in patients with HFrEF and (ii) AET and IMT would increase leg blood flow (LBF), functional capacity, and quality of life in these patients. Methods Patients age 35 to 70 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, New York Heart Association functional classes II–III, were randomized into control, IMT, and AET groups. Skeletal muscle changes were examined by vastus lateralis biopsy. LBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, and quality of life by Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. All patients were evaluated at baseline and after 4 months. Results Thirty‐three patients finished the study protocol: control (n = 10; LVEF = 25 ± 1%; six males), IMT (n = 11; LVEF = 31 ± 2%; three males), and AET (n = 12; LVEF = 26 ± 2%; seven males). AET, but not IMT, increased the expression of microRNA‐1 (P = 0.02; percent changes = 53 ± 17%), decreased the expression of PTEN (P = 0.003; percent changes = −15 ± 0.03%), and tended to increase the p‐AKTser473/AKT ratio (P = 0.06). In addition, AET decreased HDAC4 expression (P = 0.03; percent changes = −40 ± 19%) and upregulated follistatin (P = 0.01; percent changes = 174 ± 58%), MEF2C (P = 0.05; percent changes = 34 ± 15%), and MyoD expression (P = 0.05; percent changes = 47 ± 18%). AET also increased muscle cross‐sectional area (P = 0.01). AET and IMT increased LBF, functional capacity, and quality of life. Further analyses showed a significant correlation between percent changes in microRNA‐1 and percent changes in follistatin mRNA (P = 0.001, rho = 0.58) and between percent changes in follistatin mRNA and percent changes in peak VO2 (P = 0.004, rho = 0.51). Conclusions AET upregulates microRNA‐1 levels and decreases the protein expression of PTEN, which reduces the inhibitory action on the PI3K‐AKT pathway that regulates the skeletal muscle tropism. The increased levels of microRNA‐1 also decreased HDAC4 and increased MEF2c, MyoD, and follistatin expression, improving skeletal muscle regeneration. These changes associated with the increase in muscle cross‐sectional area and LBF contribute to the attenuation in skeletal myopathy, and the improvement in functional capacity and quality of life in patients with HFrEF. IMT caused no changes in microRNA‐1 and in the downstream‐associated pathway. The increased functional capacity provoked by IMT seems to be associated with amelioration in the respiratory function instead of changes in skeletal muscle. http://ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01747395)
Background Exercise training improves neurovascular control and functional capacity in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the influence of the aetiology on these benefits is unknown. We compared the effects of exercise training on neurovascular control and functional capacity in idiopathic, ischaemic and hypertensive HF patients. Design Subjects consisted of 45 exercise-trained HF patients from our database (2000-2015), aged 40-70 years old, functional class II/III and ejection fraction ≤40%, and they were divided into three groups: idiopathic ( n = 11), ischaemic ( n = 18) and hypertensive ( n = 16). Methods Functional capacity was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Results Four months of exercise training significantly reduced MSNA and significantly increased FBF in all groups. However, the relative reduction in MSNA was greater in hypertensive patients compared with that in idiopathic patients (frequency: -34% vs . -15%, p = 0.01; incidence: -31% vs . -12%, p = 0.02). No differences were found between hypertensive patients and ischaemic patients. The relative increase in FBF was greater in hypertensive patients than in ischaemic and idiopathic patients (42% vs. 15% and 17%, respectively, p = 0.02). The relative increase in forearm vascular conductance was greater in hypertensive patients compared with those in ischaemic and idiopathic patients (57% vs . 13% and 26%, respectively, p = 0.001). Exercise training significantly and similarly increased peak oxygen consumption in all groups. Conclusion The exercise-induced improvement in neurovascular control is more pronounced in hypertensive HF patients than in idiopathic and ischaemic HF patients. The increase in functional capacity is independent of aetiology.
Arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (ABRMSNA) is impaired in chronic systolic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that exercise training would improve the gain and reduce the time delay of ABRMSNA in CHF patients. Twenty-six CHF patients, New York Heart Association Functional Class II-III, EF ≤ 40%, peak V̇o2 ≤ 20 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were divided into two groups: untrained (UT, n = 13, 57 ± 3 years) and exercise trained (ET, n = 13, 49 ± 3 years). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was directly recorded by microneurography technique. Arterial pressure was measured on a beat-to-beat basis. Time series of MSNA and systolic arterial pressure were analyzed by autoregressive spectral analysis. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA was obtained by bivariate autoregressive analysis. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer at moderate intensity, three 60-min sessions per week for 16 wk. Baseline MSNA, gain and time delay of ABRMSNA, and low frequency of MSNA (LFMSNA) to high-frequency ratio (HFMSNA) (LFMSNA/HFMSNA) were similar between groups. ET significantly decreased MSNA. MSNA was unchanged in the UT patients. The gain and time delay of ABRMSNA were unchanged in the ET patients. In contrast, the gain of ABRMSNA was significantly reduced [3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2, arbitrary units (au)/mmHg, P = 0.04] and the time delay of ABRMSNA was significantly increased (4.6 ± 0.8 vs. 7.9 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.05) in the UT patients. LFMSNA-to-HFMSNA ratio tended to be lower in the ET patients (P < 0.08). Exercise training prevents the deterioration of ABRMSNA in CHF patients.
Central factors negatively affect the functional capacity of Fontan patients (FP), but "non-cardiac" factors, such as pulmonary function, may contribute to their exercise intolerance. We studied the pulmonary function in asymptomatic FP and its correlations with their functional capacity. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in a prospective study of 27 FP and 27 healthy controls (HC). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was used to evaluate the Fontan circulation. The mean age at tests, the mean age at surgery, and the median follow-up time of FP were 20(±6), 8(±3), and 11(8-17) years, respectively. Dominant ventricle ejection fraction was within normal range. The mean of peak VO expressed in absolute values (L/min), the relative values to body weight (mL/kg/min), and their predicted values were lower in FP compared with HC: 1.69 (±0.56) vs 2.81 (±0.77) L/min; 29.9 (±6.1) vs 41.5 (±9.3) mL/kg/min p < 0.001 and predicted VO Peak [71% (±14) vs 100% (±20) p < 0.001]. The absolute and predicted values of the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), inspiratory capacity (IC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide of the lung (DLCO), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) were also significantly lower in the Fontan population compared to HC. An increased risk of restrictive ventilatory pattern was found in patients with postural deviations (OD:10.0, IC:1.02-97.5, p = 0.042). There was a strong correlation between pulmonary function and absolute peak VO [FVC (r = 0.86, p < 0.001); FEV (r = 0.83, p < 0.001); IC (r = 0.84, p < 0.001); TLC (r = 0.79, p < 0.001); and DLCO (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). The strength of the inspiratory muscles in absolute and predicted values was also reduced in FP [-79(±28) vs -109(±44) cmHO (p = 0.004) and 67(±26) vs 89(±36) % (p = 0.016)]. Thus, we concluded that the pulmonary function was impaired in clinically stable Fontan patients and the static and dynamic lung volumes were significantly reduced compared with HC. We also demonstrated a strong correlation between absolute Peak VO with the FVC, FEV, TLC, and DLCO measured by complete pulmonary test.
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