Although several groups have synthesized dual-emission carbon dots (D-CDs) and paid more attention to their emission centers in recent years, the luminescence mechanism of D-CDs is still unclear. Here, we synthesized multiemission CDs via the one-pot hydrothermal method. The prepared CDs exhibit three fluorescence (FL) emissions (370, 425, and 505 nm) under one-wavelength excitation of 320 nm. In addition, various emission origins dominate the unique multiemission property, which is illuminated by means of the radiation decay process, CD internal graphite domains, and abundant functional group characterization. The characterization results fully indicate that there are three energy states: band gap state (carbon-core state), surface defect state, and molecular state. In addition, the peculiar concentration-dependent and polarity-modulated properties further support the explanation of CD multienergy states. Strikingly, the CD FL quantum yield is up to 50.68%. As CDs can show bright green FL excited over 400 nm, the color of concentrated CD solution incredibly turns from maroon to green in visible light observed from different angles. Our findings mainly account for this luminescence mechanism of CDs. This work utilizes time-resolved emission spectra for the first time to distinguish and identify multiemission origins, which would provide scientific inspiration for finding effective ways to regulate or control these luminescence processes.
Boronic acid based anthracene dyes were designed, synthesized, and immobilized to solid phase, creating a continuous glucose sensor. Glucose sensitivities of dyes can decrease drastically after immobilization, therefore how to immobilize a dye to solid phase without changing the dye property is a key issue in developing the sensor. The glucose sensitivity of the simplest 1st generation sensor, which is based on an immobilized mono-phenylboronate/single-arm type, came short of the sensitivity requirement for practical use, because of the very moderate fluorescence intensity change over the physiological glucose range. However, the 2nd generation, an immobilized bis-phenylboronate/double-arm type sensor, which contained two boronate groups in the dye moiety in expectation of a large intensity change, brought about considerable improvement on its glucose sensitivity. We tried to introduce functional groups onto an anthracene ring in order to improve the dies' fluorescence properties. Acetyl or carboxyl substitution on anthracene contributed to shift the fluorescence wavelength into the more visible range (red-shift) and a divergence of wavelength between an excitation peak and an emission peak. This improvement is advantageous to the design of an optical detection system. Furthermore, single arm immobilization to this carboxyl group, thus linking directly to the fluorophore led to a 3rd generation sensor, an immobilized bis-phenylboronate/single-arm type, that was twice as sensitive as that of the 2nd generation sensor, presumably due to increased mobility of the dye moiety. The results of our study advance closer toward a clinically useful continuous fluorescent glucose sensor.
New Cu-doped dual-emission carbon dots (D-CDs) were synthesized rapidly and simply via a one-pot solvothermal method, and its special photoluminescence mechanism was studied. D-CDs have two fluorescence (FL) emission peaks under one-wavelength excitation and can be used as dual-signal sensor which is usually designed with two or more substances. The prepared CDs show excellent water solubility, photostability, salt tolerance, oxidation resistance, and special optical properties. The raw material ratio, solvent, pH, time, and synthesis temperature were optimized. The characterizations of CDs including transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction assignation of phases, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, FL spectrum, and ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-vis) were conducted. The investigation on mechanism indicates that the unique dual-emissive property is mainly caused by the energy-level gaps generated by the surface defects of CDs. The prepared D-CDs have good potential in dual-signal analysis and visualization sensing. To demonstrate the practical application, ferric ions, vitamin A acetate, and pH have been determined successfully.
As a persistent organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate has drawn a worldwide attention. In this contribution, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles was prepared for efficient separation and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples. The polymer was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption/desorption experiments. The static adsorption experiments and the adsorption kinetic tests were conducted. The results showed that the adsorbents had high adsorption capacity (21.10 mg/g) and short adsorption equilibration time (25 min). Meanwhile, the effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on the adsorption capacity was investigated. The results indicated that the mesoporous structure helped to increase the adsorption capacity of adsorbent to adsorbate. Besides, the adsorbents show good specificity and good reusability with the adsorption capacity of adsorbent toward perfluorooctane sulfonate decreasing <5% after five adsorption–desorption cycles. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles molecularly imprinted polymer has been used successfully for the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate in environmental water samples with relative standard deviation ≤4.64%.
This paper adds to the growing literature of cryptocurrency and behavioral finance. Specifically, we investigate the relationships between the novel investor attention and financial characteristics of Bitcoin, i.e., return and realized volatility, which are the two most important characteristics of one certain asset. Our empirical results show supports in the behavior finance area and argue that investor attention is the granger cause to changes in Bitcoin market both in return and realized volatility. Moreover, we make in-depth investigations by exploring the linear and non-linear connections of investor attention on Bitcoin. The results indeed demonstrate that investor attention shows sophisticated impacts on return and realized volatility of Bitcoin. Furthermore, we conduct one basic and several long horizons out-of-sample forecasts to explore the predictive ability of investor attention. The results show that compared with the traditional historical average benchmark model in forecasting technologies, investor attention improves prediction accuracy in Bitcoin return. Finally, we build economic portfolios based on investor attention and argue that investor attention can further generate significant economic values. To sum up, investor attention is a non-negligible pricing factor for Bitcoin asset.
Background Online patient communities provide new channels for users to access and share medical information. In-depth study of users’ willingness to share information in online patient communities is of great significance for improving the level of information sharing among the patient community and the long-term development of communities. Objective The aim of this study was to build a model of factors affecting patients’ willingness to share medical information from the perspective of both positive and negative utilities. Specifically, we aimed to determine the influence of online information support and privacy concerns, as well as the moderating effect of disease severity and information sensitivity of different patients on their willingness to share. Methods Data from 490 users with experience in online patient communities were collected through a questionnaire survey, and structural equations were applied to empirically verify the model hypotheses. Results Privacy concerns negatively affected the patients’ willingness to share information (P<.001), whereas online information support positively affected patients’ willingness to share information (P<.001), and information sensitivity negatively moderated the impact of online information support on sharing willingness (P=.01). Disease severity positively moderated the impact of privacy concerns on sharing willingness (P=.05). However, the hypotheses that information sensitivity is a negative moderator and disease severity is a positive moderator of the impact of privacy concerns on sharing willingness could not be supported. Conclusions To improve the level of user information sharing, the online patient community should design a safe user registration process, ensure the confidentiality of information, reduce the privacy concerns of users, and accurately identify the information needs of patients to provide personalized support services.
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