Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable trait1 influenced by multiple biological pathways and is responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (BP ≥140 mm Hg systolic [SBP] or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic [DBP])2. Even small increments in BP are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events3. This genome-wide association study of SBP and DBP, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified 16 novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate BP (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3; NPR3-C5orf23; ADM; FURIN-FES; GOSR2; GNAS-EDN3); the other 10 provide new clues to BP physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke, and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with BP in East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of BP, and suggest novel potential therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, nineteen associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biologic pathways.
Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
Hypertension is a heritable and major contributor to the global burden of disease. The sum of rare and common genetic variants robustly identified so far explain only 1%–2% of the population variation in BP and hypertension. This suggests the existence of more undiscovered common variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,621 hypertensive cases and 1,699 controls and follow-up validation analyses in 19,845 cases and 16,541 controls using an extreme case-control design. We identified a locus on chromosome 16 in the 5′ region of Uromodulin (UMOD; rs13333226, combined P value of 3.6×10−11). The minor G allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR [95%CI]: 0.87 [0.84–0.91]), reduced urinary uromodulin excretion, better renal function; and each copy of the G allele is associated with a 7.7% reduction in risk of CVD events after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status (H.R. = 0.923, 95% CI 0.860–0.991; p = 0.027). In a subset of 13,446 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, we show that rs13333226 is independently associated with hypertension (unadjusted for eGFR: 0.89 [0.83–0.96], p = 0.004; after eGFR adjustment: 0.89 [0.83–0.96], p = 0.003). In clinical functional studies, we also consistently show the minor G allele is associated with lower urinary uromodulin excretion. The exclusive expression of uromodulin in the thick portion of the ascending limb of Henle suggests a putative role of this variant in hypertension through an effect on sodium homeostasis. The newly discovered UMOD locus for hypertension has the potential to give new insights into the role of uromodulin in BP regulation and to identify novel drugable targets for reducing cardiovascular risk.
The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li x C 6 |1 M LiPF 6 , 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexalfuoropropylene)|LiMn 2 O 4 cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the effect of overcharge on extended cycling. These results can be used to establish operational and design limits within which safety hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized.
Lipases are industrial biocatalysts, which are involved in several novel reactions, occurring in aqueous medium as well as non-aqueous medium. Furthermore, they are well-known for their remarkable ability to carry out a wide variety of chemo-, regio- and enantio-selective transformations. Lipases have been gained attention worldwide by organic chemists due to their general ease of handling, broad substrate tolerance, high stability towards temperatures and solvents and convenient commercial availability. Most of the synthetic reactions on industrial scale are carried out in organic solvents because of the easy solubility of non-polar compounds. The effect of organic system on their stability and activity may determine the biocatalysis pace. Because of worldwide use of lipases, there is a need to understand the mechanisms behind the lipase-catalyzed reactions in organic solvents. The unique interfacial activation of lipases has always fascinated enzymologists and recently, biophysicists and crystallographers have made progress in understanding the structure-function relationships of these enzymes. The present review describes the advantages of lipase-catalyzed reactions in organic solvents and various effects of organic solvents on their activity.
Lipases are very versatile enzymes, and produced the attention of the several industrial processes. Lipase can be achieved from several sources, animal, vegetable, and microbiological. The uses of microbial lipase market is estimated to be USD 425.0 Million in 2018 and it is projected to reach USD 590.2 Million by 2023, growing at a CAGR of 6.8% from 2018. Microbial lipases (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides. The microbial origins of lipase enzymes are logically dynamic and proficient also have an extensive range of industrial uses with the manufacturing of altered molecules. The unique lipase (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolase) enzymes catalyzed the hydrolysis, esterification and alcoholysis reactions. Immobilization has made the use of microbial lipases accomplish its best performance and hence suitable for several reactions and need to enhance aroma to the immobilization processes. Immobilized enzymes depend on the immobilization technique and the carrier type. The choice of the carrier concerns usually the biocompatibility, chemical and thermal stability, and insolubility under reaction conditions, capability of easy rejuvenation and reusability, as well as cost proficiency. Bacillus spp., Achromobacter spp., Alcaligenes spp., Arthrobacter spp., Pseudomonos spp., of bacteria and Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., of fungi are screened large scale for lipase production. Lipases as multipurpose biological catalyst has given a favorable vision in meeting the needs for several industries such as biodiesel, foods and drinks, leather, textile, detergents, pharmaceuticals and medicals. This review represents a discussion on microbial sources of lipases, immobilization methods increased productivity at market profitability and reduce logistical liability on the environment and user.
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