Objectives: This study proposed a new automated screening system based on a hybrid genetic swarm fuzzy (GSF) classifier using digital dental panoramic radiographs to diagnose females with a low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. Methods: The geometrical attributes of both the mandibular cortical bone and trabecular bone were acquired using previously developed software. Designing an automated system for osteoporosis screening involved partitioning of the input attributes to generate an initial membership function (MF) and a rule set (RS), classification using a fuzzy inference system and optimization of the generated MF and RS using the genetic swarm algorithm. Fivefold cross-validation (5-FCV) was used to estimate the classification accuracy of the hybrid GSF classifier. The performance of the hybrid GSF classifier has been further compared with that of individual genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization fuzzy classifiers. Results: Proposed hybrid GSF classifier in identifying low BMD or osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the hybrid GSF with optimized MF and RS in identifying females with a low BMD were 95.3%, 94.7% and 96.01%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and 99.1%, 98.4% and 98.9%, respectively, at the femoral neck BMD. The diagnostic performance of the proposed system with femoral neck BMD was 0.986 with a confidence interval of 0.942-0.998. The highest mean accuracy using 5-FCV was 97.9% with femoral neck BMD. Conclusions: The combination of high accuracy along with its interpretation ability makes this proposed automatic system using hybrid GSF classifier capable of identifying a large proportion of undetected low BMD or osteoporosis at its early stage.
Accuracy maximization and complexity minimization are the two main goals of a fuzzy expert system based microarray data classification. Our previous Genetic Swarm Algorithm (GSA) approach has improved the classification accuracy of the fuzzy expert system at the cost of their interpretability. The if-then rules produced by the GSA are lengthy and complex which is difficult for the physician to understand. To address this interpretability-accuracy tradeoff, the rule set is represented using integer numbers and the task of rule generation is treated as a combinatorial optimization task. Ant colony optimization (ACO) with local and global pheromone updations are applied to find out the fuzzy partition based on the gene expression values for generating simpler rule set. In order to address the formless and continuous expression values of a gene, this paper employs artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to evolve the points of membership function. Mutual Information is used for idenfication of informative genes. The performance of the proposed hybrid Ant Bee Algorithm (ABA) is evaluated using six gene expression data sets. From the simulation study, it is found that the proposed approach generated an accurate fuzzy system with highly interpretable and compact rules for all the data sets when compared with other approaches.
Wireless medical sensor network is used in healthcare applications that have the collections of biosensors connected to a human body or emergency care unit to monitor the patient's physiological vital status. The real-time medical data collected using wearable medical sensors are transmitted to a diagnostic centre. The data generated from the sensors are aggregated at this centre and transmitted further to the doctor's personal digital assistant for diagnosis. The unauthorised access of one's health data may lead to misuse and legal complications while unreliable data transmission or storage may lead to life threatening risk to patients. So, this Letter combines the symmetric algorithm and attribute-based encryption to secure the data transmission and access control system for medical sensor network. In this work, existing systems and their algorithm are compared for identifying the best performance. The work also shows the graphical comparison of encryption time, decryption time and total computation time of the existing and the proposed systems.
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